vitamin d endocrine system
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Abstract: The skin represents a pivotal organ for the human body's vitamin D endocrine system, being both the site of ultraviolet (UV)-B-induced vitamin D synthesis and a target tissue for the pluripotent effects of 1, 25(OH)2 D3 and other biologically active vitamin D metabolites. As many other steroid hormones, 1, 25(OH)2 D3 exerts its effects via two independent signal transduction pathways: the classical genomic and the non-genomic pathway. While non-genomic effects of 1, 25(OH)2 D3 are in part exerted via effects on intracellular calcium, genomic effects are mediated by the vitamin D receptor (VDR). Recent findings convincingly support the concept of a new function of the VDR as a tumor suppressor in skin, with key components of the vitamin D endocrine system, including VDR, CYP24A1, CYP27A1, and CYP27B1 being strongly expressed in non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC). It has now been shown that anti-tumor effects of VDR, that include some of its ligand-induced growth-regulatory effects, are at least in part mediated by interacting in a highly coordinated manner with the p53 family (p53/p63/p73) in response to a large number of alterations in cell homeostasis, including UV-induced DNA damage, a hallmark for skin photocarcinogenesis. Considering the relevance of the vitamin D endocrine system for carcinogenesis of skin cancer, it is not surprising that low 25(OH)D serum concentrations and genetic variants (SNPs) of the vitamin D endocrine system have been identified as potential risk factors for occurrence and prognosis of skin malignancies. In conclusion, an increasing body of evidence now convincingly supports the concept that the vitamin D endocrine system is of relevance for photocarcinogenesis and progression of NMSC and that its pharmacologic modulation by vitamin D, 1, 25(OH)2 D3, and analogs represents a promising new strategy for prevention and/or treatment of these malignancies. Highlights: The skin represents a pivotal organ for the human body's vitamin D endocrine system, being both the site of ultraviolet (UV)-B-induced vitamin D synthesis and a target tissue for 1, 25(OH)2 D3 and vitamin D metabolites. Key components of the vitamin D endocrine system, including VDR, CYP24A1, CYP27A1, and CYP27B1 are strongly expressed in skin cancer. Recent findings convincingly support the concept of a new function of the VDR as a tumor suppressor in skin. Pharmacologic modulation of the vitamin D endocrine system represents a promising new strategy for prevention and/or treatment of skin cancer.
Vitamin D, a steroid hormone, has mainly been known for its effects on bone and osteoporosis. The current therapeutic practices expand into such markets as cancer research, pediatrics, nephrology, dermatology, immunology, and genetics. This 3e includes over 100 chapters covering everything from chemistry and metabolism to mechanisms of action, diagnosis and management, new analogs, and emerging therapies. This complete reference works is a must-have resource for anyone working in endocrinology, osteology, bone biology, or cancer research. *Most comprehensive, up-to-date two-volume set on Vitamin D *Initial chapters cover the chemistry and metabolism of vitamin D, role in mineralization, other target organs, and general physiological effects *Second volume is more clinically oriented addressing deficiency problems (including diagnosis, interactions in the endocrine system, and involvement in malignancies) *Further sections on emerging uses for treatments of auto-immune diseases and diabetes *New chapters on squamous cell cancer, brain cancer, thyroid cancer and many more *Over 600 illustrations and figures available on CD
Vitamin D is a fat-soluble steroid hormone precursor that contributes to the maintenance of normal levels of calcium and phosphorus in the bloodstream. Strictly speaking, it is not a vitamin since human skin can manufacture it, but it is referred to as one for historical reasons. It is often known as calciferol. The major biologic function of vitamin D is to maintain normal blood levels of calcium and phosphorus. Vitamin D aids in the absorption of calcium, helping to form and maintain strong bones. It promotes bone mineralisation in concert with a number of other vitamins, minerals and hormones. Without vitamin D, bones can become thin, brittle, soft or misshapen. Vitamin D prevents rickets in children and osteomalacia in adults - skeletal diseases that result in defects that weaken bones. This book gathers international research on the leading-edge of the scientific front.
In Vitamin D: Physiology, Molecular Biology, and Clinical Applications, Second Edition, leading researchers provide a comprehensive, highly readable overview of the biological functions and clinical applications of vitamin D and its metabolites. Topics range from the most recent recommendations for vitamin D intake to new approaches for the treatment and prevention of vitamin D deficiency and the development of active vitamin D drugs to treat psoriasis and cancer. The book demonstrates the significant role that vitamin D has in maintaining good bone health and the prevention of osteoporosis, an important health problem for adults over the age of fifty. In addition, it authoritatively reviews the relationship between sunlight exposure, vitamin D, and increased risk of colon and breast cancer; how vitamin D is made in the skin; and the sequence of events that leads to its activation by the kidney. Also examined are the biological functions of 1,25-dihydrovitamin D3 on the intestine and bone, as well as other tissues, such as skin, the immune system, prostate, and breast, and vitamin D's molecular mechanism of action on the cell membrane and nucleus. The first edition of Vitamin D: Physiology, Molecular Biology and Clinical Applications was the benchmark in the field when published in 1999. This new and expanded volume continues to include extensive, in-depth chapters covering the most important aspects of the complex interactions between vitamin D and other dietary components, the ongoing debate concerning the best indicator of optimal vitamin D status and its nutrient requirements, and the impact of less than optimal status on disease risk. Vitamin D: Physiology, Molecular Biology, and Clinical Applications, Second Edition is designed and organized not only to be an up-to-date review on the subject, but also to provide medical students, graduate students, health care professionals and even the lay public with a reference source for the most up-to-date information about the vitamin D deficiency pandemic and its clinical implications for health and disease.
Research and clinical application of vitamin D has increased dramatically over the past decade stimulated by novel health promotion discoveries and documentation. This book brings together key researchers with their views focusing on the health promotion role of vitamin D. Such information is vital to clinicians, users of vitamin D supplements of all ages and those interested in public policy. The authors document and define many of the key health related roles of vitamin D. Its traditional application in bone and muscle health as well as therapy of arthritis is expanded and clarified with new research. A better understanding of the effects of vitamin D inadequacy is modelled using problems ranging from infant growth retardation to chronic kidney and periodontal disease. Uniquely the vitamin?s role in resistance and treatment of infectious diseases is shown in examples ranging from HIV/AIDS to tuberculosis. Mechanistic understanding of vitamin D's actions is enhanced by looking into its effects on immune modulation and inflammation. Expansion of the role of sunlight in stimulating vitamin D production is discussed relative to the reduction in a variety of cancers. Clearly vitamin D is like a two edged sword with great benefits but also some risks. This book provides carefully defined examples of both situations.
A comprehensive, highly readable overview of the topics discussed at the First International Symposium on "Vitamin D Analogs in Cancer Prevention and Therapy" held in Homburg/Saar, Germany in May 2002. Leading researchers discuss our present knowledge of the vitamin D system in cancer. Topics range from the newest findings in molecular biology, epidemiology, synthesis and metabolism of vitamin D to new concepts for the use of vitamin D analogs in cancer prophylaxis and treatment. The book provides essential up-to-date information for every researcher or clinician interested in the biology of vitamin D or cancer.