Centuries ago, during the industrial revolution, rickets, also called 'the English disease', spread rapidly among city-dwelling poor children and became endemic due to vitamin D deficiency and insufficient access to sunlight. Nowadays it appears to be endemic again as the increase of vitamin D deficiency is paralleling the primacy of breast-feeding in Western societies. Breastfeeding, nutritional status and dark skin are the main risk factors for rickets or 'rachitis' as is the correct medical term. Rickets is a childhood disorder and the basis for understanding the disease is rooted in the concept of mineral metabolism and its control mechanisms in the growing fetus, infant and child. As it is now understood that rickets is not only caused by vitamin D deficiency, it has to be kept in mind that vitamin D and calcium deficiency is prevalent in developing countries as well as in affluent societies, where children and their mothers are not exposed to as much sunlight as they need. The rapid growth in molecular biology has been exemplified in the application of subcellular technologies to study vitamin D in human and animal models. In this volume the latest research on vitamin D and rickets is presented from different perspectives such as the interesting historical overview to bone metabolism, molecular genetics of vitamin D and conclusions for disease prevention. It will be of special interest to pediatricians, endocrinologists and health care specialists who work with children at risk for the disease.
vitamin d and rickets
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Please note that the content of this book primarily consists of articles available from Wikipedia or other free sources online. Pages: 34. Chapters: Rickets, 7-Dehydrocholesterol, Tuberculosis treatment, Hypovitaminosis D, Hypervitaminosis D, Vitamin D and influenza, Calcitriol receptor, Cholecalciferol, Cathelicidin, 1,25-Dihydroxycholecalciferol, Vitamin D-binding protein, Ergosterol, Calcifediol, Osteomalacia, Paricalcitol, Calcipotriol, Previtamin D3, X-linked hypophosphatemia, Breast cancer; calcium and vitamin D, Tacalcitol, Vitamin D5, Lumisterol, Ergocalciferol, 22-Dihydroergocalciferol, Dihydrotachysterol, 7-Dehydrositosterol, Calcitroic acid, Vitamin D-dependent calcium-binding protein. Excerpt: Tuberculosis treatment refers to the medical treatment of the infectious disease tuberculosis (TB). The standard "short" course treatment for TB is isoniazid, rifampicin (also known as rifampin in the United States), pyrazinamide, and ethambutol for two months, then isoniazid and rifampicin alone for a further four months. The patient is considered cured at six months (although there is still a relapse rate of 2 to 3%). For latent tuberculosis, the standard treatment is six to nine months of isoniazid alone. If the organism is known to be fully sensitive, then treatment is with isoniazid, rifampicin, and pyrazinamide for two months, followed by isoniazid and rifampicin for four months. Ethambutol need not be used. All first-line anti-tuberculous drug names have a standard three-letter and a single-letter abbreviation: Streptomycin is no longer considered as a first line drug by by ATS/IDSA/CDC because of high rates of resistance) The US commonly uses abbreviations and names that are not internationally recognised: rifampicin is called rifampin and abbreviated RIF; streptomycin is commonly abbreviated SM. Drug regimens are similarly abbreviated in a standardised manner. The drugs are listed using their single letter abbreviations (in the order given above, which...
Presents information on vitamins, minerals, and dietary supplements in a dictionary format, with over 900 entries.
Vitamin D: Volume 2: Health, Disease and Therapeutics, Fourth Edition, authoritatively covers the evidence for new roles for vitamin D, ranging from cardiovascular disease, to cancer, diabetes, inflammatory bowel disease, multiple sclerosis and renal disease. This collection represents a who’s who of vitamin D research and the coverage is appropriately broad, drawing in internal medicine, orthopedics, oncology and immunology. Clinical researchers will gain a strong understanding of the molecular basis for a particular area of focus. Offers a comprehensive reference, ranging from basic bone biology, to biochemistry, to the clinical diagnostic and management implications of vitamin D Saves researchers and clinicians time in quickly accessing the very latest details on the diverse scientific and clinical aspects of Vitamin D, as opposed to searching through thousands of journal articles Chapter authors include the most prominent and well-published names in the field Targets chemistry, metabolism and circulation, mechanisms of action, mineral and bone homeostasis and vitamin D deficiency Presents a clinical focus on disorders, analogs, cancer, immunity, inflammation, disease and therapeutic applications
In Vitamin D: Physiology, Molecular Biology, and Clinical Applications, Second Edition, leading researchers provide a comprehensive, highly readable overview of the biological functions and clinical applications of vitamin D and its metabolites. Topics range from the most recent recommendations for vitamin D intake to new approaches for the treatment and prevention of vitamin D deficiency and the development of active vitamin D drugs to treat psoriasis and cancer. The book demonstrates the significant role that vitamin D has in maintaining good bone health and the prevention of osteoporosis, an important health problem for adults over the age of fifty. In addition, it authoritatively reviews the relationship between sunlight exposure, vitamin D, and increased risk of colon and breast cancer; how vitamin D is made in the skin; and the sequence of events that leads to its activation by the kidney. Also examined are the biological functions of 1,25-dihydrovitamin D3 on the intestine and bone, as well as other tissues, such as skin, the immune system, prostate, and breast, and vitamin D's molecular mechanism of action on the cell membrane and nucleus. The first edition of Vitamin D: Physiology, Molecular Biology and Clinical Applications was the benchmark in the field when published in 1999. This new and expanded volume continues to include extensive, in-depth chapters covering the most important aspects of the complex interactions between vitamin D and other dietary components, the ongoing debate concerning the best indicator of optimal vitamin D status and its nutrient requirements, and the impact of less than optimal status on disease risk. Vitamin D: Physiology, Molecular Biology, and Clinical Applications, Second Edition is designed and organized not only to be an up-to-date review on the subject, but also to provide medical students, graduate students, health care professionals and even the lay public with a reference source for the most up-to-date information about the vitamin D deficiency pandemic and its clinical implications for health and disease.
This issue features internationally renowned experts who have provided their expertise on a variety of topics related to the importance of vitamin D. It was not until feed back loops were identified between Vitamin D production and parathyroid hormone, phosphate that it earned its place as a true endocrine hormone. Current social and economic conditions have brought it back into the limelight with outbreaks of rickets and osteomalacia even in developed countries. However its complex regulation, together with the identification and characterization of the vitamin D receptor and its role in influencing multiple genetic pathways and function has heralded a new era highlighting its importance in health and disease. This includes its role in auto immune diseases such as multiple sclerosis, diabetes mellitus, cancer especially breast and prostate, skin, neurological and cognitive disorders and infectious diseases such as tuberculosis. We now know that adequate levels of vitamin D it is important in preventing falls and fracture. The need for supplementation and the amount recommended has also changed considerably from what we previously considered sufficient. The ongoing development of selective active analogs of vitamin D targeted to specific organs and function leads to the exciting possibility of improving outcomes of diseases associated with vitamin D regulation.
This issue covers essential topics in endocrinology and Vitamin D, providing the most up-to-date information. Subject matter covered includes the extra-skeletal effects, nutritional needs, Vit D. assays, Rickets, osteomalacia, immune properties of Vit. D, oseoporosis, Vit. D analogs and properties, renal disease, Vit D receptor, cancer, and diabetes.
The accompanying CD-ROM is an Electronic Image Collection for Pediatric Bone - Biology & Diseases. This collection provides chapterwise listing of images. User can view images or he can select for custom presentation. (disc content)