virus as populations

Virus As Populations
Author: Esteban Domingo
Publisher: Academic Press
Release Date: 2015-09-25
Pages: 428
ISBN:
Available Language: English, Spanish, And French
EBOOK SYNOPSIS:

Virus as Populations: Composition, Complexity, Dynamics, and Biological Implications explains fundamental concepts that arise from regarding viruses as complex populations when replicating in infected hosts. Fundamental phenomena in virus behavior, such as adaptation to changing environments, capacity to produce disease, probability to be transmitted or response to treatment, depend on virus population numbers and in the variations of such population numbers. Concepts such as quasispecies dynamics, mutations rates, viral fitness, the effect of bottleneck events, population numbers in virus transmission and disease emergence, new antiviral strategies such as lethal mutagenesis, and extensions of population heterogeneity to nonviral systems are included. These main concepts of the book are framed in recent observations on general virus diversity derived from metagenomic studies, and current views on the origin of viruses and the role of viruses in the evolution of the biosphere. Features current views on the key steps in the origin of life and origins of viruses Includes examples relating ancestral features of viruses with their current adaptive capacity Explains complex phenomena in an organized and coherent fashion that is easy to comprehend and enjoyable to read Considers quasispecies as a framework to understand virus adaptability and disease processes

Virus As Populations
Author: Esteban Domingo
Publisher: Academic Press
Release Date: 2019-11-06
Pages: 426
ISBN:
Available Language: English, Spanish, And French
EBOOK SYNOPSIS:

Virus as Composition, Complexity, Quasispecies, Dynamics, and Biological Implications, Second Edition, explains the fundamental concepts surrounding viruses as complex populations during replication in infected hosts. Fundamental phenomena in virus behavior, such as adaptation to changing environments, capacity to produce disease, and the probability to be transmitted or respond to treatment all depend on virus population numbers. Concepts such as quasispecies dynamics, mutations rates, viral fitness, the effect of bottleneck events, population numbers in virus transmission and disease emergence, and new antiviral strategies are included. The book's main concepts are framed by recent observations on general virus diversity derived from metagenomic studies and current views on the origin and role of viruses in the evolution of the biosphere. Features current views on key steps in the origin of life and origins of viruses Includes examples relating ancestral features of viruses with their current adaptive capacity Explains complex phenomena in an organized and coherent fashion that is easy to comprehend and enjoyable to read Considers quasispecies as a framework to understand virus adaptability and disease processes

Quasispecies  Concept And Implications For Virology
Author: Esteban Domingo
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
Release Date: 2006-02-19
Pages: 410
ISBN:
Available Language: English, Spanish, And French
EBOOK SYNOPSIS:

Continuous genetic variation and selection of virus subpopulations in the course of RNA virus replications are intimately related to viral disease mechanisms. The central topics of this volume are the origins of the quasispecies concept, and the implications of quasispecies dynamics for viral populations.

From Virus Populations To Epidemics
Author: Duncam Stewart Callaway
Publisher:
Release Date: 2001
Pages: 308
ISBN:
Available Language: English, Spanish, And French
EBOOK SYNOPSIS:

The study of the population dynamics of disease ranges from the scale of individual cells interacting with virus particles to the structure of the host interaction network. This thesis represents a broad survey of the mathematics of disease across these scales. I have used differential equations to examine the role of competition among viral strains on the progression of HIV infected persons to AIDS, and the factors that lead to the persistence of viral replication in HIV patients undergoing potent drug therapies. At the epidemic level, I have used difference equations to understand the effect of pathogen mutation and host immunity on disease persistence. I have used generating function methods and concepts from graph theory to probe the kinds of host interactions, in particular the distribution of contact rates, which lead to successful vaccination programs. Lastly, I have explored a model of network growth to examine the assumptions made in previous work.

Emerging Viruses In Human Populations
Author: Edward Tabor
Publisher: Elsevier
Release Date: 2006-12-19
Pages: 374
ISBN:
Available Language: English, Spanish, And French
EBOOK SYNOPSIS:

Infectious diseases are an ever present threat to humans. In recent years, the threat of these emerging viruses has been greater than ever before in human history, due in large part to global travel by larger numbers of people, and to a lesser extent to disruptions in the interface between developed and undeveloped areas. The emergence of new deadly viruses in human populations during recent decades has confirmed this risk. They remain the third leading cause of deaths in the US and the second world-wide. Emerging Viruses in Human Populations provides a comprehensive review of viruses that are emerging or that threaten to emerge among human populations in the twenty-first century. It discusses the apprehension over emerging viruses that has intensified due to concerns about bioterrorism. * Presents the history of emerging viruses * Includes chapters on SARS, Pandemic Threat of Avian Influenza Viruses, West Nile Virus, Monkeypox Virus, Hantavirus, Nipah Virus and Hendra Virus, Japanese Encephalitis Virus, Dengue and Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Viruses * Discusses surveillance for newly emerging diseases

Molecular Basis Of Virus Evolution
Author: Adrian J. Gibbs
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Release Date: 2005-11-17
Pages: 624
ISBN:
Available Language: English, Spanish, And French
EBOOK SYNOPSIS:

This 1995 book covers virus evolution, genetics and interaction with host for virologists and evolutionists.

Diversity Of Plant Virus Populations  A Valuable Tool For Epidemiological Studies
Author: Fernando Escriu
Publisher:
Release Date: 2017
Pages:
ISBN:
Available Language: English, Spanish, And French
EBOOK SYNOPSIS:

Plant viruses, as any other living organisms, differ genetically from each other as a result of processes (such as mutation, recombination and other forms of genetic exchange) that generate genetic variation in each generation during their reproduction and processes (such as selection, migration and genetic drift) that modulate this variation, determine the distribution of the genetic variants within a population (id est, the genetic structure of the population) and how it changes with time, in a dynamical phenomenon called evolution. For plant viruses, evolutionary forces that generate and modulate the genetic diversity of their populations are often associated to different phases in their biology and ecology, such as virus-host interactions and host to host transmission. Forces that shape the evolution of plant viruses are at the same time key factors affecting their pathogenic properties, including their ability to cause diseases (an aspect that is studied in the field of epidemiology). The present chapter aims to illustrate how measurement and analysis of genetic diversity and structure of plant virus populations are essential to the current knowledge on the evolutionary biology of plant viruses and how evolutionary factors have a relevant role in the dynamics of virus populations and therefore, in the epidemiology of plant virus diseases.

Citrus Tristeza Virus Populations In Grapefruit Trees  Pre Immunized With Two Different Cross Protecting Sources
Author: David Read
Publisher:
Release Date: 2011
Pages: 308
ISBN:
Available Language: English, Spanish, And French
EBOOK SYNOPSIS:

Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) is responsible for the most devastating viral disease of citrus crops and affects the profitability of citriculture on a worldwide scale. In South Africa, where CTV is endemic, the devastating effects of CTV severe-strain infections are reduced through the intentional inoculation of virus-free budwood with a mild-strain cross-protecting source. Cross-protection breakdown however occurs in grapefruit trees in South Africa and results in a reduction of yield and quality in grapefruit producing areas. Grapefruit cultivars are particularly sensitive to the stem-pitting effects of some severe CTV strains and despite the rigorous cross-protection scheme, severe stem-pitting and decline symptoms are still observed in the field. The GFMS 12 cross-protecting isolate was used as the cross-protecting source for grapefruit plantings in South Africa until its use was terminated in 2007. As early as 1993 however, severe stem-pitting was observed in the field. GFMS 35 has been employed as an alternate cross-protecting source, due to the apparent poor cross-protection ability of GFMS 12. Using nucleotide sequence analysis of a 5’ variable region (A-region) and a 3’ conserved region (p23 gene region), CTV population studies were performed on GFMS 12 and GFMS 35 pre-immunised Star Ruby and Flame trees in the field, in the hot production area of Malelane. The viral population of GFMS 12 and GFMS 35 sources, maintained on Mexican Lime and Star Ruby, plants were characterized as references. Severe VT-like strains dominated (up to 100% of clones) in all of the field samples. Of the two grapefruit cultivars sampled, no clear differences in their strain assemblage was obtained, suggesting that relative to each other, these cultivars played no role in shaping the CTV population strain composition that were observed. VT-like strain dominance was also observed in most of the sources maintained on Star Ruby. A shift in population strain composition was observed in the sources maintained on Mexican lime suggesting the important role that hosts may play in strain selection. A number of anomalous results were obtained for the sources that appeared not to follow the “general trend” of population strain composition observed in the other samples. These anomalies may have been caused by when the samples were collected, the age of the tissue material collected, PCR bias during amplification or some other factor resulting in a population shift in the sources. From these results it is near impossible to pinpoint the exact mechanism responsible for CTV cross-protection breakdown. However, the scale of the complexity of CTV population dynamics in South Africa has become clear. From this it will be possible to begin changing the way that cross-protection candidates are evaluated in South Africa, from an entirely empirical approach to one that incorporates much needed molecular methods.

The Nature Of RNA Virus Quasispecies Populations
Author: Elizabeth Anne Duarte
Publisher:
Release Date: 1993
Pages: 348
ISBN:
Available Language: English, Spanish, And French
EBOOK SYNOPSIS:

Virus Dynamics   Mathematical Principles Of Immunology And Virology
Author: Martin Nowak
Publisher: Oxford University Press, UK
Release Date: 2000-11-23
Pages: 250
ISBN:
Available Language: English, Spanish, And French
EBOOK SYNOPSIS:

This groundbreaking book describes the emerging field of theoretical immunology, in particular the use of mathematical models to describe the spread of infectious diseases within patients. It reveals fascinating insights into the dynamics of viral and other infections, and the interactions between infectious agents and immune responses. Structured around the examples of HIV/AIDS and hepatitis B, Nowak and May show how mathematical models can help researchers to understand the detailed dynamics of infection and the effects of antiviral therapy. Models are developed to describe the dynamics of drug resistance, immune responses, viral evolution and mutation, and to optimise the design of therapy and vaccines. - ;We know, down to the tiniest details, the molecular structure of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Yet despite this tremendous accomplishment, and despite other remarkable advances in our understanding of individual viruses and cells of the immune system, we still have no agreed understanding of the ultimate course and variability of the pathogenesis of AIDS. Gaps in our understanding like these impede our efforts towards developing effective therapies and preventive vaccines. Martin Nowak and Robert M May describe the emerging field of theoretical immunology in this accessible and well- written text. Using mathematical modelling techniques, the authors set out their ideas about how populations of viruses and populations of immune system cells may interact in various circumstances, and how infectious diseases spread within patients. They explain how this approach to understanding infectious diseases can reveal insights into the dynamics of viral and other infections, and the interactions between infectious agents and immune responses. The book is structured around the examples of HIV/AIDS and Hepatitis B virus, although the approaches described will be more widely applicable. The authors use mathematical tools to uncover the detailed dynamics of the infection and the effects of antiviral therapy. Models are developed to describe the emergence of drug resistance, and the dynamics of immune responses, viral evolution, and mutation. The practical implications of this work for optimisation of the design of therapy and vaccines are discussed. The book concludes with a glance towards the future of this fascinating, and potentially highly useful, field of study. - ;... an excellent introduction to a field that has the potential to advance substantially our understanding of the complex interplay between virus and host - Nature

Virus Diseases  New Insights For The Healthcare Professional  2011 Edition
Author:
Publisher: ScholarlyEditions
Release Date: 2012-01-09
Pages: 706
ISBN:
Available Language: English, Spanish, And French
EBOOK SYNOPSIS:

Virus Diseases: New Insights for the Healthcare Professional: 2011 Edition is a ScholarlyEditions™ eBook that delivers timely, authoritative, and comprehensive information about Virus Diseases. The editors have built Virus Diseases: New Insights for the Healthcare Professional: 2011 Edition on the vast information databases of ScholarlyNews.™ You can expect the information about Virus Diseases in this eBook to be deeper than what you can access anywhere else, as well as consistently reliable, authoritative, informed, and relevant. The content of Virus Diseases: New Insights for the Healthcare Professional: 2011 Edition has been produced by the world’s leading scientists, engineers, analysts, research institutions, and companies. All of the content is from peer-reviewed sources, and all of it is written, assembled, and edited by the editors at ScholarlyEditions™ and available exclusively from us. You now have a source you can cite with authority, confidence, and credibility. More information is available at http://www.ScholarlyEditions.com/.

Modeling Plant Virus Disease Epidemics
Author: Lukas Bertschinger
Publisher: International Potato Center
Release Date: 1997
Pages: 32
ISBN:
Available Language: English, Spanish, And French
EBOOK SYNOPSIS:

The system to be modeled; Modeling virus disease epidemics: theory and techniques; Modeling virus disease epidemics: past and recent progress; Prospects and future opportunities.

Virus Resistant Transgenic Plants  Potential Ecological Impact
Author: Mark Tepfer
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
Release Date: 1997-09-02
Pages: 126
ISBN:
Available Language: English, Spanish, And French
EBOOK SYNOPSIS:

These Proceedings evolved from the OECD Co-operative Research Programme workshop on "Potential ecological impact of transgenic plants expressing viral sequencies", held at the Agricultural Biotechnology Center in Gödöllö, Hungary on 24-26 April 1997. The OECD Co-operative Research Programme At the Directorate for Agrieulture of the Organisation for Economie Co-operation and Development (OECD) a co-operative research programme for "Biological Resource Management" has existed since 1990. It foeuses on work in four specific topie areas, one of whieh is "Ecology and utilisation of new organisms" (Theme 3). The activities promoted by this programme are post-doctoral fellowships (announced annually), and the organisation of expert workshops (1-2 workshops per Theme per year). The 26 OECD member countries participating in this programme are: Australia, Austria, Belgium, Canada, Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, ltaly, Korea, Japan, the NetherIands, New Zealand, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, SwitzerIand, Turkey, the UK, and the USA.

Viruses And The Environment
Author: J.I. Cooper
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
Release Date: 2012-12-06
Pages: 224
ISBN:
Available Language: English, Spanish, And French
EBOOK SYNOPSIS:

During the decade since the publication of the first edition of this important book, there has been a rapid advancement in the techniques of genetic engineering and molecular biology. In this edition Joseph Cooper takes those advances into account and includes such topics as gene therapy, immunosuppression and new viruses of human/veterinary significance. Much new information about virus transmission is also included and the most modern systems of virus taxonomy are used to emphasise the features shared between viruses in plants, animals and bacteria. This is the only book of its type which covers viruses in all forms of life.

Plant Virus Evolution
Author: Marilyn J. Roossinck
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
Release Date: 2008-02-23
Pages: 224
ISBN:
Available Language: English, Spanish, And French
EBOOK SYNOPSIS:

This book provides a comprehensive look at the field of plant virus evolution. It is the first book ever published on the topic. Individual chapters, written by experts in the field, cover plant virus ecology, emerging viruses, plant viruses that integrate into the host genome, population biology, evolutionary mechanisms and appropriate methods for analysis. It covers RNA viruses, DNA viruses, pararetroviruses and viroids, and presents a number of thought-provoking ideas.

Herpes Simplex Viruses
Author: Marie Studahl
Publisher: CRC Press
Release Date: 2017-11-22
Pages: 440
ISBN:
Available Language: English, Spanish, And French
EBOOK SYNOPSIS:

Studying the epidemiology, identification, pathogenesis and clinical features of diseases associated with herpes simplex viruses, this important reference evaluates the latest treatment regimens, mechanisms of immune response and evasion, and research related to vaccines for the prevention and reduction of HSV outbreaks. Covering the basic virology relevant to the understanding of disease manifestations, Herpes Simplex Viruses analyzes: the evolution of HSV infections recent clinical trials using new and emerging pharmaceuticals, as well as new treatments for HSV prognoses and management schemes for different disease manifestations of HSV well-known diseases such as gingivostomatitis and recurrent labial infection, HSV infections of the skin, acute and recurrent genital infection, and ocular infection diseases recently associated with HSV such as paresis of the facial nerve.

Genomics And Computational Science For Virus Research
Author: Hironori Sato
Publisher: Frontiers E-books
Release Date:
Pages:
ISBN:
Available Language: English, Spanish, And French
EBOOK SYNOPSIS:

A biologically striking and clinically important feature of viruses is their rapid evolutionary dynamics in nature. The continual interactions between viruses and host organisms promote quick changes in virus populations, eventually leading to co-evolution of viruses and hosts for their survival. The structural and functional information on the interactions between viruses and hosts should provide a molecular and biological basis to understand infection, replication, cell/host-tropism, immune escape, pathogenesis, and direction of evolution of viruses. The information is also essential to develop methods to control transmission and replication of pathogenic viruses. However, the integrated information on the structure, function, and evolution of viruses and hosts has remained poorly accumulated, partly due to the limitation of analytical methods. Recent progress in genome science and computational approach may open up a new avenue of research of the interactions between viruses and hosts by integrating information on the structures, functions, and evolution. In this Research Topic, we welcome papers concerning the computer-assisted structural and functional studies based on genomic information, with theoretical or in combination with experimental approaches, for understanding molecules, infection, replication, cell/host-tropism, immune escape, pathogenesis, and evolution of viruses in nature.

Advances In Virus Research
Author:
Publisher: Academic Press
Release Date: 2013-12-26
Pages: 392
ISBN:
Available Language: English, Spanish, And French
EBOOK SYNOPSIS:

The first review series in virology and published since 1953, Advances in Virus Research covers a diverse range of in-depth reviews, providing a valuable overview of the field. Contributions from leading authorities Comprehensive reviews for general and specialist use First and longest-running review series in virology

The Effect Of Within Host Virus Population Growth And Interspecific Competition On Aphid Transmission And Population Structure Of Barley Yellow Dwarf Virus
Author: Gerod Sharper Hall
Publisher:
Release Date: 2007
Pages: 182
ISBN:
Available Language: English, Spanish, And French
EBOOK SYNOPSIS:

Barley yellow dwarf virus (BYDV) (Luteoviridae) species PAV and PAS are ecologically similar in that they share aphid vectors and host species, but in agricultural fields in New York State we found that the prevalence of PAV was three times greater than that of PAS. To determine if differences in within-host population growth rate affect vector transmission efficiency, disease spread and the distribution of virus types in the host community, this study evaluated the biological characteristics of PAV and PAS species isolates in common agricultural hosts and the outcome of competitive interactions between species in mixed infections. In singly infected plants, PAS population size was 20% greater than that of PAV at 8 days post inoculation (DPI), but by 33 DPI the population size of PAV was 10% greater than that of PAS. In doubly infected plants, by 33 DPI the population size of PAV was 40% greater than that of PAS.

Population Dynamics And Laboratory Ecology
Author: Luo Yiqi
Publisher: Elsevier
Release Date: 2005-08-18
Pages: 400
ISBN:
Available Language: English, Spanish, And French
EBOOK SYNOPSIS:

Population Dynamics and Laboratory Ecology highlights the contributions laboratory studies are making to our understanding of the dynamics of ecological and evolutionary systems. Chapters address the scientific rationale for laboratory ecology, its historical role within the broader discipline, and recent advances in research. The book presents results from a wide range of laboratory systems including insects, mites, plankton, protists, and microbes. A common theme throughout the book is the value of microcosm studies in advancing our knowledge of ecological and evolutionary principles. Each chapter is authored by scientists who are leading experts in their fields. The book addresses fundamental questions that are of interest to biologists whether they work in the laboratory or field or whether they are primarily empiricists or theorists. Details a scientific rationale for laboratory systems in ecological and evolutionary studies Offers a view on historical role of laboratory studies Includes examples of recent research advances in ecology and evolution using laboratory systems, ranging from insects to microbes Integrates mathematics, statistics and experimental studies