treaty s law
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This text tackles the crucial issue of how divergent individual, State, and Regional cultures impact the international legal system in the law and State practice in regard to treaty interpretation and reservations.
The book focuses on the substantive protections accorded to investors and investments and on the variations among jurisdictions. Among the many specific issues and topics that arise in the course of the discussion are the following: - problems of transparency and conflict of interest; - the recent growth in IIAs between and among developing nations; - the effect of new model bilateral investment treaties (BITs); - the ability of non-disputing parties to participate in investor-state arbitration; - theories of the interaction of foreign direct investment (FDI) and BITs; - investor-state arbitration as an evasion of public regulatory authority; - the role of investment funds in international investment; - 'fork in the road' provisions; and - institutional versus ad hoc arbitration. International business and other investors will greatly appreciate the in-depth information and insightful guidance in this solidly useful book. It will also be welcomed by jurists and students as a significant milestone in the development of principles in a quickly growing field of practice that is still plagued with inconsistencies.
While treaties can be notoriously difficult to amend by formal means, they must nevertheless be adapted over time in order to remain useful. Herein lies the role of subsequent practice as a key tool for treaty change. Subsequent practice-a well-established means of treaty interpretation-sometimes diverges from the original treaty provision to such an extent that it can no longer be said to constitute an act of interpretation or application. Rather, it becomes, in effect, one of treaty modification. The modification of treaties by subsequent practice extends to all fields of international law, from the law of the sea, environmental law, and investment law, to human rights and humanitarian law. Such modifications can have significant practical consequences, from revising or creating new rights and obligations, to establishing new institutional mechanisms. Determining when and how treaty modification by subsequent practice occurs poses difficulty to legal scholars and dispute settlement bodies alike, and impacts States' expectations as to their treaty obligations. This significant yet underexplored process is the focus of this book. Modification of Treaties by Subsequent Practice proves that subsequent practice can-under carefully defined conditions that ensure strict accordance with the will of the treaty parties-alter, supplement, and terminate treaty provisions or even entire treaty frameworks. It can also generate customary law and fuel regime interaction. Ultimately, this book demonstrates the relevance and dynamism of the process of treaty modification by subsequent practice, emphasizing the need to deal with the issue head on, and explains-on a theoretical and practical level-how it can be identified and dealt with more consistently in the future. The book thus contributes to a deeper understanding of the process of treaty modification by subsequent practice and its continued role in striking the judicious balance between the stability of treaties on the one hand, and the organic evolution of the law on the other.
The 1969 Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties, regulating treaties between States, lies at the heart of international law. This commentary interprets the Conventiona (TM)s 85 articles clearly and precisely. It covers such major topics as reservations to treaties, their interpretation and the grounds for terminating a treaty, for instance breach. Emphasis is placed on the practice of States and tribunals and on academic writings. It contains further sections on customary international law and the Conventiona (TM)s history while providing up-to-date information on ratifications and reservations. This commentary is a must for practitioners and academics wishing to establish the meaning and scope of the provisions of the Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties.
In-depth analysis of the potential conflict between CFC legislation and tax treaties. The book also evaluates the potential conflict between the CFC legislation, found in European Union countries, and the EC Treaty.
Crime is usually territorial. It is a matter of the law of the place where it occurs. Nevertheless, a surprising number of American criminal laws apply outside of the U.S. Application is generally a question of legislative intent, expressed or implied. In either case, it most often involves crimes committed aboard a ship or airplane, crimes condemned by international treaty, crimes committed against government employees or property, or crimes that have an impact in this country even if planned or committed in part elsewhere. Although the crimes over which the U.S. has extraterritorial jurisdiction may be many, so are the obstacles to their enforcement. Contents of this report: (1) Introduction; (2) Constitutional Considerations; (3) Conclusion; (5) Bibliography.
'After Lisbon the EU has reached a new precarious stage in its development. New institutions have been created and policies reformed. The different chapters of this book cover the most important innovations, while providing a fresh critical assessment of the shortcomings of the present arrangements. Works are always in progress at the EU site and the authors provide the future architects of this grand building as well as the academic community with much food for thought.' – Roberto Caranta, University of Turin, Italy This comprehensive and insightful book discusses in detail the many innovations and shortcomings of the historic Lisbon version of the Treaty on European Union and what is now called the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union. Divided into six parts, the 23 chapters provide 'after Lisbon' perspectives on law and governance of the EU, its powers and nature, the Charter of Fundamental Rights, EU external action and policy, justice and criminal policy, and economic governance. The authors, drawn from eleven EU Member States, offer a uniquely diverse and extensive coverage of the new EU law and policy after Lisbon. The book argues that while the Treaty of Lisbon has to be considered a milestone in the history of European integration, its shortcomings and open questions will make a future major treaty inevitable. The Treaty of Lisbon and the Future of European Law and Policy will appeal to postgraduate students and academics in European law and policy, EU institutions, diplomatic missions, lobbying, NGOs, specialised lawyers and governments.