thresholds of genotoxic carcinogens

Thresholds Of Genotoxic Carcinogens
Author: Takehiko Nohmi
Publisher: Academic Press
Release Date: 2016-05-20
Pages: 224
ISBN:
Available Language: English, Spanish, And French
EBOOK SYNOPSIS:

Thresholds of Genotoxic Carcinogens: From Mechanisms to Regulation brings together current opinion and research activities from Japan, the US, and Europe on the subject of genotoxic thresholds. In regulation, it is an adage that genotoxic carcinogens have no thresholds for action, and that they impose cancer risk on humans even at very low levels. This policy is frequently called into question as humans possess a number of defense mechanisms including detoxication, DNA repair, and apoptosis, meaning there is a threshold at which these genotoxic carcinogens take action. The book examines these potential thresholds, describing the potential cancer risks of daily low-level exposure, the mechanisms involved (such as DNA repair, detoxication, translesion DNA synthesis), chemical and statistical methods of analysis, and the ways in which these may be utilized to inform policy. Thresholds of Genotoxic Carcinogens: From Mechanisms to Regulation is an essential reference for any professional researchers in genetic toxicology and those involved in toxicological regulation. Unites an international team of experts to provide a balanced overview of the current opinion on thresholds of genotoxic carcinogens Provides all the information readers need to determine a safe threshold for potential genotoxic carcinogens Includes information on the mechanisms of genotoxic carcinogens and how these can inform regulation Serves as an essential reference for any professional researchers in genetic toxicology and those involved in toxicological regulation

The Cellular Response To The Genotoxic Insult
Author: Helmut Greim
Publisher: Royal Society of Chemistry
Release Date: 2015-11-09
Pages:
ISBN:
Available Language: English, Spanish, And French
EBOOK SYNOPSIS:

Genotoxic carcinogens can lead to DNA mutations with the potential to cause cancer. Typically, a series of mutation events are needed before malignancy occurs so a single, small exposure may not result in disease. Also, cells have an armoury of defence mechanisms which, to a degree, counter the effects of mutagens. Distinguishing the point at which exposure to a carcinogen increases mutation rates beyond the background level is challenging. In fact, there is now general agreement that, for genotoxic carcinogens, no specific threshold can be identified. However, NOAELs (No Observed Adverse Effect Levels) may be used in the process of establishing a dose-response relationship. These denote the level of exposure at which there is no significant increase in adverse effects in the exposed population when compared to an appropriate control. Such a scientifically defendable threshold allows us to propose health based exposure limits for genotoxic carcinogens. This book describes the various cellular defence mechanisms individually and explains how they are regulated. The processes covered include metabolic inactivation, epigenetic regulation, scavenging mechanisms, DNA-repair and apoptosis. It also considers dose-dependent threshold mechanisms of carcinogenesis and the rate limiting parameters. Aimed at graduate level and above, the book discusses the consequences of genotoxic evaluation and urges readers to question the idea that even low exposures present a cancer risk.

Dealing With Contaminated Sites
Author: Frank A. Swartjes
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
Release Date: 2011-01-12
Pages: 1104
ISBN:
Available Language: English, Spanish, And French
EBOOK SYNOPSIS:

This standard work on contaminated site management covers the whole chain of steps involved in dealing with contaminated sites, from site investigation to remediation. An important focus throughout the book is on Risk Assessment. In addition, the book includes chapters on characterisation of natural and urban soils, bioavailability, natural attenuation, policy and stakeholder viewpoints and Brownfields. Typically, the book includes in-depth theories on soil contamination, along with offering possibilities for practical applications. More than sixty of the world’s top experts from Europe, the USA, Australia and Canada have contributed to this book. The twenty-five chapters in this book offer relevant information for experienced scientists, students, consultants and regulators, as well as for ‘new players’ in contaminated site management

Cancer Risk Assessment
Author: Ching-Hung Hsu
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
Release Date: 2010-12-08
Pages: 856
ISBN:
Available Language: English, Spanish, And French
EBOOK SYNOPSIS:

With a weight-of-the-evidence approach, cancer risk assessment indentifies hazards, determines dose-response relationships, and assesses exposure to characterize the true risk. This book focuses on the quantitative methods for conducting chemical cancer risk assessments for solvents, metals, mixtures, and nanoparticles. It links these to the basic toxicology and biology of cancer, along with the impacts on regulatory guidelines and standards. By providing insightful perspective, Cancer Risk Assessment helps researchers develop a discriminate eye when it comes to interpreting data accurately and separating relevant information from erroneous.

A Guide To Practical Toxicology
Author: David Woolley
Publisher: CRC Press
Release Date: 2003-02-20
Pages: 336
ISBN:
Available Language: English, Spanish, And French
EBOOK SYNOPSIS:

Toxicology is a means to an important end: safety. The effective toxicologist begins with this in mind, and uses a clear understanding of safety as a relative concept, together with a rational view of the current safety evaluation paradigm to direct their work. Too often this approach is ignored or discouraged by traditional practice. This lucid, readable book encourages both experienced toxicologists and those in training to place toxicological investigation in such a framework. It looks at the importance of toxicological normality, reviews toxicity testing methods, and explores new and 'alternative' methods of safety evaluation. The interpretation of toxicity findings in individual studies and data packages and the prediction of human-relevant hazards are reviewed, followed by an introduction to risk and how we perceive and assess risk in the light of known hazards and the probability of their occurrence. The final stage of the toxicological process, risk assessment and management, is reviewed with particular reference to the work-place. A Guide to Practical Toxicology uses text boxes to give background information on specific subjects or to act as simple guides to toxicological method or process; this is supported by tables and case-studies intended to illustrate method, study design and interpretation. These features mean the book works at different levels, suitable for professional and student toxicologists as well as those from outside the field who require some knowledge of toxicological method and interpretation, for instance in occupational hygiene or medicine and veterinary surgery.

Toxicological Risk Assessment Of Chemicals
Author: Elsa Nielsen
Publisher: CRC Press
Release Date: 2008-02-21
Pages: 448
ISBN:
Available Language: English, Spanish, And French
EBOOK SYNOPSIS:

Unlike many existing books on toxicology that cover either toxicity of a particular substance or toxicity of chemicals on particular organ systems, Toxicological Risk Assessment of Chemicals: A Practical Guide lays out the principle activities of conducting a toxicological risk assessment, including international approaches and methods for the risk assessment of chemical substances. It illustrates each step in the process: hazard identification, a dose response assessment, and exposure assessment. The book also summarizes the basic concepts of interaction of chemicals in mixtures and discusses various approaches to testing such mixtures. Features: Addresses standards from all international regulatory agencies Presents the steps in risk assessment, including hazard identification, exposure assessment, and risk characterization Covers the assessment of multiple chemical exposures or chemical mixtures Contains data from both human and animal studies Explains the linearized multi-stage mathematical model widely used by the US EPA for characterizing

Quantitative Structure Activity Relationship  QSAR  Models Of Mutagens And Carcinogens
Author: Romualdo Benigni
Publisher: CRC Press
Release Date: 2003-02-26
Pages: 304
ISBN:
Available Language: English, Spanish, And French
EBOOK SYNOPSIS:

Applied with success in a number of areas, QSAR studies have become particularly popular in the rational design of drugs and pesticides. Much has been published on the principles of QSAR in this area, but not on their application s to toxic chemicals. This book provides the first comprehensive, interdisciplinary presentation of QSAR studies on

Endocrine Disrupters
Author: Polyxeni Nicolopoulou-Stamati
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
Release Date: 2013-03-14
Pages: 377
ISBN:
Available Language: English, Spanish, And French
EBOOK SYNOPSIS:

During recent decades, millions of tonnes of man-made chemicals have been produced and released into the environment, with very little safety testing. Many of these chemical substances have been found to interfere with the endocrine system and modulate its function. This book not only overviews the effects of endocrine/disrupting substances on human health, but also addresses the regulatory problems from the point of view of international organisations, including the WHO, the EU, and the European Chlorine Industry. This volume contains the proceedings of a workshop held at the International Hippocrates Foundation on Kos Island, Greece, in September 1999. The workshop was part of the activities of the ASPIS project, which aims at raising awareness of environmental health impacts among multidisciplinary groups. The contributions to this volume are the result of the interaction of participants at the workshop. As such, it addresses the issue of endocrine disrupters from many different points of view and allows the subject to be approached by a multidisciplinary readership, including: decision makers, medical doctors, environmental experts, post/and undergraduate students, lawyers, engineers, and journalists.

Encyclopedia Of Quantitative Risk Analysis And Assessment  R Z  Index
Author: Edward L. Melnick
Publisher:
Release Date: 2008
Pages: 1954
ISBN:
Available Language: English, Spanish, And French
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Encyclopaedia Of Occupational Health And Safety  The Body  Health Care  Management And Policy  Tools And Approaches
Author: Jeanne Mager Stellman
Publisher: International Labour Organization
Release Date: 1998
Pages: 1174
ISBN:
Available Language: English, Spanish, And French
EBOOK SYNOPSIS:

Revised and expanded, this edition provides comprehensive coverage of occupational health and safety. A new CD-ROM version is available which provides the benefits of computer-assisted search capabilities.

Alternatives To Laboratory Animals
Author:
Publisher:
Release Date: 2009
Pages:
ISBN:
Available Language: English, Spanish, And French
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Illustrated Handbook Of Toxicology
Author: Franz-Xaver Reichl
Publisher: Thieme
Release Date: 2010-12-15
Pages: 360
ISBN:
Available Language: English, Spanish, And French
EBOOK SYNOPSIS:

The Illustrated Handbook of Toxicology is an impressive introduction to the complex field of toxicology. It also serves as a hands-on guide to various poison treatments and offers supplemental public health information.Each two-page unit features concise text on the left complemented by full-color illustrations on the opposing page. The expert author distinguishes harmful toxic substances and catalogues their specific effects on the human body, plants, animals, and the surrounding environment. The handbook also addresses cutting-edge topics, including biological warfare, modern toxicological methods, and threshold values.Features: Succinct, user-friendly organization allows readers to navigate the content with ease Over 500 detailed images and diagrams arranged on 150 full-color plates illustrate exposures and toxicological effects on humans, plants, and animals Well-researched, objective risk analysis on toxic exposures accompanies relevant images Extensive glossary of key toxicological terms provides readers with the accurate information they need to avoid dangerous confusion This is the ideal text for all medical students who want to supplement the toxicological information covered in their coursework, as well as for first responders to chemical accidents and poisonings.

Environmental Carcinogenesis
Author: Piet Emmelot
Publisher: North Holland
Release Date: 1979
Pages: 401
ISBN:
Available Language: English, Spanish, And French
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Chromosomal Alterations
Author: Günter Obe
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
Release Date: 2007-06-02
Pages: 515
ISBN:
Available Language: English, Spanish, And French
EBOOK SYNOPSIS:

The book helps the reader to better understand cytogenetics and the intricacies of the methodology. The different methods of fluorescence in situ hybridization are discussed and the results achieved are presented. The book provides a comprehensive review of basic and applied aspects of cytogenetics and thus is of intense interest to all those interested in chromosomes and their alterations by different types of mutagens, including chemical mutagens and ionizing and nonionizing radiation, with special reference to electromagnetic fields.

Environmental Stressors In Health And Disease
Author: Jürgen Fuchs
Publisher: CRC Press
Release Date: 2001-07-20
Pages: 520
ISBN:
Available Language: English, Spanish, And French
EBOOK SYNOPSIS:

This volume illustrates the impact of environmental oxidants on the tissues of the eyes, lungs and skin, as well as on the immune system - highlighting common illnesses, injuries and pathologies induced by pro-oxidant environmental xenobiotics such as inflammation, immune response, signal transduction, regulation of gene expression, and carcinogenesis. It provides clinical presentations and discusses the effects of environmental oxidants on target organs.

Environmental Impact Assessment Of Recycled Wastes On Surface And Ground Waters
Author: Tarek A. Kassim
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
Release Date: 2005-07-22
Pages: 284
ISBN:
Available Language: English, Spanish, And French
EBOOK SYNOPSIS:

Volume 2: Risk Analysis. This 3-volume reference presents the latest findings in impact assessment of recycled hazardous waste materials on surface and ground waters. Topics covered include chemodynamics, toxicology, modeling and information systems. The book serves as a practical guide for the monitoring, design, management, or conduct of environmental impact assessment. Each volume contains the table of contents of all volumes.

Low Dose Exposures In The Environment
Author: Christian Streffer
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
Release Date: 2004-05-03
Pages: 471
ISBN:
Available Language: English, Spanish, And French
EBOOK SYNOPSIS:

The ever-increasing release of harmful agents due to human activities have led in some areas of the world to heavy pollution. In order to protect human health and the environment, environmental standards that shall limit the release and the concentration of those toxic agents in the environment and hence the exposure to it have to be established. The related assessment and decision-making procedures have to be based on solid scientific data about the effects and mechanisms of these agents as well as on ethical, social and economic aspects. For risk evaluation, the knowledge of the dose response curve is an essential prerequisite. Dose responses without a threshold dose are most critical in this connection. Such dose responses are assumed for mutagenic and carcinogenic effects, which, therefore, dominate also the discussion in this book. In the environmentally important low dose range, risk estimation can only be achieved by extrapolation from higher doses with measurable effects. The extrapolation is accompanied with uncertainties which makes risk evaluation as well as risk communication frequently problematic. In order to ensure rational efficient and fair decisions beyond a sound scientific assessment the dialogue between disciplines, with the affected people and with the general public is necessary. In this book, the whole range of relevant and essential aspects of risk evaluation and standard setting is addressed. Starting with the ethical foundations, the sound analysis of recent scientific findings sets the frame for further reflections by theory of cognition, psychosocial sciences, and jurisprudence. The authors end up with concluding recommendations for coping with the recent problems of standard setting in the field of environmentally relevant low doses. The book is designed to a readership of scientists, legislators, administrators, and the interested public.

The Textbook Of Pharmaceutical Medicine
Author: John P. Griffin
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
Release Date: 2013-03-29
Pages: 856
ISBN:
Available Language: English, Spanish, And French
EBOOK SYNOPSIS:

The Textbook of Pharmaceutical Medicine is the standard reference for everyone working and learning in pharmaceutical medicine. It is a comprehensive resource covering the processes and practices by which medicines are developed, tested and approved, and the recognised text for the Diploma in Pharmaceutical Medicine from the Faculty of Pharmaceutical Medicine. This fully revised Seventh Edition, which includes two new Editors, encompasses current developments within pharmaceutical medicine with new chapters on biological therapeutics, pharmacovigilance, vaccines, drugs for cancer, drug development in paediatrics and neonatalogy, the clinical trials directive, life cycle management of medicines, counterfeit medicines and medical marketing. Also included for easy reference, and referred to throughout the text, are the Declaration of Helsinki, Guidelines and Documentation for Implementation of Clinical Trials, relevant European Directives and the Syllabus for Pharmaceutical Medicine. Written by an international team of leading academics, medical directors and lawyers, The Textbook of Pharmaceutical Medicine, Seventh Edition meets the needs of both those working in pharmaceutical medicine and preparing for the Diploma in Pharmaceutical Medicine. The text breaks down into three core sections: Part I: Research and Development Part II: Regulation Part III: Healthcare marketplace View Table of Contents in detail

Environmental Health Risks
Author: David G. Wood
Publisher: DIANE Publishing
Release Date: 2002-07
Pages: 67
ISBN:
Available Language: English, Spanish, And French
EBOOK SYNOPSIS:

Some dioxins, which are chemical compounds that share certain structural and biological characteristics, have been linked to adverse human health effects, including cancer. 1 Often the byproducts of combustion and industrial processes, complex mixtures of dioxins enter the food chain and human diet through emissions into the air that settle on soil, plants, and water. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and other entities, such as the World Health Organization, began assessing the potential human health risks of dioxins in the 1970s, when animal studies on one of them 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin, or TCDD showed it to be the most potent cancer-causing chemical studied to date. EPAs initial assessment of dioxins was published in 1985. Since that time, there have been major advances in the scientific understanding of dioxin toxicity and significant new studies on dioxins potential adverse health effects. As a result, in 1991 EPA decided to conduct a reassessment of the health risks of exposure to dioxins. A draft of this reassessment was reviewed by a scientific peer review panel in 1995, and three panels reviewed key segments of later drafts in 1997 and 2000.

Air Quality In Urban Environments
Author: Ronald E. Hester
Publisher: Royal Society of Chemistry
Release Date: 2009-01-01
Pages: 148
ISBN:
Available Language: English, Spanish, And French
EBOOK SYNOPSIS:

This comprehensive volume deals with the basic science of urban air pollution in relation to the sources and concentrations, and the atmospheric chemical and physical processes which determine those concentrations and lead to the formation of secondary pollutants by chemical reactions in the atmosphere--