The differences among functionalist, cognitivist and/or constructionist models are generally taken to be not absolute, but rather a matter of emphasis and degree, with an increasing permeability between paradigms arising from cross-fertilizing influences. This book further explores this burgeoning area of research through the notion of functional-cognitive space, namely, the topography of the space occupied by functional, cognitivist and/or constructionist models against the background of formalist approaches in general and of Chomsky’s Minimalism in particular. Specifically, the twelve contributions in the present volume update the reader on recent developments in functionalism (Systemic Functional Grammar, Functional Discourse Grammar and Role and Reference Grammar) and cognitivism (Word Grammar, (Cognitive) Construction Grammar and the Lexical Contructional Model). Plotting cognitive-space proves particularly adequate for situating the six models represented in this volume, not only in relation to each other, but also potentially with respect to a wide spectrum of functionalist, cognitivist and/or constructionist models.
theory and practice in functional cognitive space
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Within Construction Grammar, this volume moves away from a compartmentalized view of constructions with the aim of providing a more holistic description of grammar. Thus, the book brings together analyses that look at constructional families within the “constructicon” of such languages as English, Spanish, German, Polish, Croatian, and Hungarian. Part 1 focuses on how different analytical perspectives may be applied to comparable and/or connected constructions with a view to enhancing our understanding of their similarities, differences, and relations. Part 2 contributes to the state of the art in Construction Grammar in three ways: (i) by reconciling aspects of various constructionist analyses; (ii) by determining to what extent competing constructionist perspectives can offer more adequate approaches to specific analytical needs; and (iii) by challenging central assumptions within Construction Grammar. This book is expected to encourage further research into the anatomy of constructional families and their interrelations in all domains of constructional organization.
The Routledge Handbook of Systemic Functional Linguistics brings together internationally renowned scholars of systemic functional linguistics (SFL) to provide a space for critical examination of the key tenets underpinning SFL theory. Uniquely, it includes description of the three main strands within contemporary SFL scholarship: Halliday’s Introduction to Functional Grammar, Martin’s discourse semantics and Fawcett’s Cardiff Grammar. In five sections and thirty-eight interdisciplinary chapters, this is the first handbook to cover the whole architecture of SFL theory, comprising: ? the ontology and epistemology of SFL; SFL as a clause grammar; lexicogrammar below the clause, and SFL’s approach to constituency; SFL’s vibrant theory of language above the clause; and SFL as a theory of praxis with real-world applications. With a wide range of language examples, a comprehensive editors’ introduction and a section on further reading, The Routledge Handbook of Systemic Functional Linguistics is an essential resource for all those studying and researching SFL or functional grammar.
Over the last forty years, the functionalist approach to linguistic description and explanation has given rise to several major schools of thought that share two crucial assumptions: (i) form is not independent of meaning/function or language use; and (ii) linguistic description and explanation need to take into account the communicative function of language. This volume offers readers interested in functional linguistics a selected sample of studies that jointly prove the efficacy of the analytical tools and procedures broadly accepted within the functionalist tradition in order to investigate language and discourse, with special focus on key pragmatic/discourse notions such as contextualization, grammaticalisation, reference, politeness, (in-)directness, discourse markers, speech acts, subjective evaluation and sentiment analysis in texts, among others. In addition, this volume offers specific corpus-based techniques for the objective contextualisation of linguistic data, which is crucial given the central role allotted to context in both functional linguistics and pragmatics/discourse analysis.
This book, intended primarily for researchers and advanced students, expands greatly on previous work by the authors exploring the topography of the multidimensional “functional-cognitive space” within which functional, cognitive and/or constructionist approaches to language can be located. The analysis covers a broad range of 16 such approaches, with some additional references to Chomskyan minimalism, and is based on 58 questionnaire items, each rated by 29 experts on particular models for their importance in the model concerned. These ratings are analysed statistically to reveal overall patterns of (dis)similarity across models. The questionnaire ratings and experts’ comments are then used, together with the authors’ close reading of the literature, in detailed discussion leading to a final dichotomous rating for each feature in each model, the results again being analysed statistically. The final chapter presents the overall conclusions and suggests how existing collaborations between approaches could be strengthened, and new ones created, in future research. Exploring Functional-Cognitive Space has been awarded the 2016 prize of the Spanish Association for Applied Linguistics (Asociación Española de Lingüística Aplicada, AESLA) for work by experienced researchers.
First published in 1985. Routledge is an imprint of Taylor & Francis, an informa company.
Item response theory (IRT) is a latent variable modeling approach used to minimize bias and optimize the measurement power of educational and psychological tests and other psychometric applications. Designed for researchers, psychometric professionals, and advanced students, this book clearly presents both the "how-to" and the "why" of IRT. It describes simple and more complex IRT models and shows how they are applied with the help of widely available software packages. Chapters follow a consistent format and build sequentially, taking the reader from model development through the fit analysis and interpretation phases that one would perform in practice. The use of common empirical data sets across the chapters facilitates understanding of the various models and how they relate to one another.
Intelligence, Instruction, and Assessment shows how modern theories of intelligence can be directly applied by educators to the teaching of subject matter, regardless of the age of the students or the content being taught. It is intended primarily for teachers at all levels--elementary, secondary, tertiary--who want to apply in their classrooms what we know about intelligence. The focus is not on modifying students' intelligence, per se, but on increasing their disciplinary knowledge and understanding. Hence, this book will help teachers learn how they can teach more effectively what they are already teaching. The assumption is that what teachers care most about is how they can improve upon what they are already doing, and how they can learn what they need to do in order to be more effective in their work. The contributors are well known for their work on intelligence and education. Each chapter includes an accessible explanation of the author's theory of intelligence, and discusses the implications of that theory both for instruction and for assessment. The book is international in scope, reflecting both American and European perspectives. Anyone interested in knowing how modern theories of intelligence can be applied to education will want to read this book--particularly teachers and other education specialists, as well as developmental psychologists, cognitive psychologists, and philosophers with an interest in applying psychological theory to classroom practice. It will serve well as a text for courses on educational psychology, intelligence, cognition and instruction, and foundations of teaching.
Throughout history, nature has served as an inspiration for architecture and designers have tried to incorporate the harmonies and patterns of nature into architectural form. Alberti, Charles Renee Macintosh, Frank Lloyd Wright, and Le Courbusier are just a few of the well- known figures who have taken this approach and written on this theme. With the development of fractal geometry--the study of intricate and interesting self- similar mathematical patterns--in the last part of the twentieth century, the quest to replicate nature’s creative code took a stunning new turn. Using computers, it is now possible to model and create the organic, self-similar forms of nature in a way never previously realized. In Fractal Architecture, architect James Harris presents a definitive, lavishly illustrated guide that explains both the “how” and “why” of incorporating fractal geometry into architectural design.