The Transformation of Citizenship addresses the basic question of how we can make sense of citizenship in the twenty-first century. These volumes make a strong plea for a reorientation of the sociology of citizenship and address serious threats of an ongoing erosion of citizenship rights. Arguing from different scientific perspectives, rather than offering new conceptions of citizenship as supposedly more adequate models of rights, membership and belonging, they deal with both the ways citizenship is transformed and the ways it operates in the face of fundamentally transformed conditions. This volume Political Economy discusses manifold consequences of a decades-long enforcement of neo-liberalism for the rights of citizens. As neo-liberalism not only means a new form of economic system, it has to be conceived of as an entirely new form of global, regional and national governance that radically transforms economic, political and social relations in society. Its consequences for citizenship as a social institution are no less than dramatic. Against the background of both manifest and ideological processes the book looks at if citizenship has lost the basis it has rested upon for decades, or if the institution itself is in a process of being fundamentally transformed and restructured, thereby changing its meaning and the significance of citizens’ rights. This book will appeal to academics working in the field of political theory, political sociology and European studies.
the transformation of citizenship volume 1
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At the beginning of the twenty-first century the consequences of fundamental global economic, political, social and cultural transformations that have been underway for decades challenge modern citizenship. There can be no doubt that modern citizenship can no longer operate as it did in the second half of the twentieth century. Neither the politico-economic foundation nor the idea of political participation nor formerly clear-cut boundaries or the Western idea of peaceful deliberation about citizens' rights can be taken for granted any longer. All over the world the rights of citizens have come under enormous pressure. This is true in the face of an extreme asymmetry of power between organised economic interests and citizens that try to defend once achieved standards of living; it is also true given new political centres of decision-making that are beyond the control of citizens; it is true for newly emerging boundaries that are mobilised in order to re-define arrangements of inclusion and exclusion; finally, it is true for growing resistance among the citizenries and violent upheavals against both autocratic and declining democratic regimes such as France and Great Britain. Against this background The Transformation of Citizenship addresses the basic question of how we can make sense of citizenship in the twenty-first century. These volumes make a strong plea for a reorientation of the sociology of citizenship and address serious threats of an ongoing erosion of citizenship rights. Arguing from different scientific perspectives, rather than offering new conceptions of citizenship as supposedly more adequate models of rights, membership and belonging, they deal with both the ways citizenship is transformed and the ways it operates in the face of fundamentally transformed conditions.
This volume Struggle, Resistance and Violence examines the fact that all over the world the rights of citizens have come under enormous pressure and addresses the many ways in which people are ‘making claims’ against both autocratic and democratic authority. Without any doubt rule-breaking, riots and violent upheavals have become an aspect of political struggles for citizenship. The book takes up a conflict perspective that directs attention to these recent phenomena. It stresses the necessity of a careful analysis of resistance and violence as critical factors for coming to terms with social conflicts for citizenship from Europe to South America, as well as the Near East, the Far East and the Arab World.
This volume Boundaries of Inclusion and Exclusion examines the many different and newly emerging ways in which citizenship refers to spatial, symbolic and social boundaries. Today, in the context of citizenship we face processes of inclusion and exclusion on national and supranational level but no less on the level of groups and individuals. The book addresses these different levels and discusses processes of inclusion and exclusion with regard to spatial, social and symbolic boundaries referring to such different problems as political participation, migration, or identity with regard to religion or the EU. This book will appeal to academics working in the field of political theory, political sociology and European studies.
There is no threat to Western democracies today comparable to the rise of right-wing populism. While it has played an increasing role at least since the 1990s, only the social consequences of the global financial crises in 2008 have given it its break that led to UK’s ‘Brexit’ and the election of Donald Trump as US President in 2016, as well as promoting what has been called left populism in countries that were hit the hardest by both the banking crisis and consequential neo-liberal austerity politics in the EU, such as Greece and Portugal. In 2017, the French Front National (FN) attracted many voters in the French Presidential elections; we have seen the radicalization of the Alternative für Deutschland (AfD) in Germany and the formation of centre-right government in Austria. Further, we have witnessed the consolidation of autocratic regimes, as in the EU member states Poland and Greece. All these manifestations of right-wing populism share a common feature: they attack or even compromise the core elements of democratic societies such as the separation of powers, protection of minorities, or the rule of law. Despite a broad debate on the re-emergence of ‘populism’ in the transition from the twentieth to the twenty-first century that has brought forth many interesting findings, a lack of sociological reasoning cannot be denied, as sociology itself withdrew from theorising populism decades ago and largely left the field to political sciences and history. In a sense, Populism and the Crisis of Democracy considers itself a contribution to begin filling this lacuna. Written in a direct and clear style, this set of volumes will be an invaluable reference for students and scholars in the field of political theory, political sociology and European Studies. This volume Concepts and Theory offers new and fresh perspectives on the debate on populism. Starting from complaints about the problems of conceptualising populism that in recent years have begun to revolve around themselves, the chapters offer a fundamental critique of the term and concept of populism, theoretically inspired typologies and descriptions of currently dominant concepts, and ways to elaborate on them. With regard to theory, the volume offers approaches that exceed the disciplinary horizon of political science that so far has dominated the debate. As sociological theory so far has been more or less absent in the debate on populism, only few efforts have been made to discuss populism more intensely within different theoretical contexts in order to explain its dynamics and processes. Thus, this volume offers critical views on the debate on populism from the perspectives of political economy and the analysis of critical historical events, the links of analyses of populism with social movement mobilisation, the significance of ‘superfluous populations’ in the rise of populism and an analysis of the exclusionary character of populism from the perspective of the theory of social closure.
Urban Change and Citizenship in Times of Crisis addresses the fact that in the beginning of the twenty-first century the majority of the world's population is urbanized, a social fact that has turned cities more than ever into focal sites of social change. Multiple economic and political strategies, employed by a variety of individual and collective actors, on a number of scales, constitute cities as contested spaces that hold opportunities as well as restrictions for their inhabitants. While cities and urban spaces have long been of central concern for the social sciences, today, classical sociological questions about the city acquire new meaning: Can cities be spaces of emancipation, or does life in the modern city entail a corrosion of citizenship rights? Is the city the focus of societal transformation processes, or do urban environments lose importance in shaping social reality and economic relationships? Furthermore, new questions urgently need to be asked: What is the impact of different historical phenomena such as neo-liberal restructuring, financial and economic crises, or migration flows, as well as their respective counter-movements, on the structure of contemporary cities and on the citizenship rights of city inhabitants? The three volumes address such crucial questions thereby opening up new spaces of debate on both the city and new developments of urbanism. The contributions to Concepts and Theory offer new theoretical reflections on the city in a philosophical and historical perspective as well as fresh empirical analyses of social life in urban contexts. Chapters not only critically revisit classical and modern philosophical considerations about the nature of cities but no less discuss normative philosophical reflections of urban life and the role of religion in historical processes of the emergence of cities. Composed around the question whether there can be such a thing as a 'successful city', this volume addresses issues of urban political subjectivities by considering the city's role in historical processes of emancipation, the fight for citizenship rights, and today's challenges and opportunities with regard to promoting social justice, integration, and diversity. Consequentially, theory-driven empirical analyses offer new insight into ways of solving problems in urban contexts and a genuine approach to analyse the Social Quality in cities.
The study of citizenship began as the study of political rights and democratic governance within Western politics and philosophy. Today however, it encompasses a broader sociological perspective highlighting that a universally shared concept of citizenship is further away from practical articulation and understandings of the concept than ever. This paper will examine the interaction of two different forms of citizen belonging, and the rights and responsibilities associated with these: (1) membership of the imagined community of the nation-state and (2) membership of various acknowledged communities at the sub-national level. In examining these different forms of citizen membership, so to speak, the paper explores processes of access and exclusion - both separately and in interaction with each other. This working paper aims to contribute to the development of a research agenda on the theme of 'inclusive citizenship', particularly the challenges it presents in the context of poorer southern countries today. Through a historical analysis, it argues that the notions of citizenship constructed in the West are inappropriate in post-colonial contexts, in which pre-existing differences within the population have been exacerbated or artificially suppressed by the strategic manoeuvrings of colonial power. As a result, prevailing ideas about personhood, identity and affiliation lead to fractured notions of citizenship and exclusionary outcomes. The author concludes proposing three themes for future research into inclusive citizenship in the South.
Contemporary welfare provision poses serious challenges for social policy. Large and rapid changes are said to be taking place in the way we live, work and relate to each other, characterised by anxiety and insecurity.Risk and Citizenship explores how new and diffrent forms of citizenship are evolving in the context of this 'risk society' and the implications for the development of social policy at both the macro and micro level. This spirited and informed collection of papers by leading analysts addresses key questions related to welfare, citizenship and risk including: the nature of insecurity and social protection; the balance between inequality and egalitarianism; the relationship between governments and citizens; the parameters of citizenship; and the impact of risk assessment and risk management. Risk and Citizenship offers a thought-provoking reading for student, practitioner or policy-maker. It provides: * a review of current debates about risk, citizenship and welfare * in-depth analysis of specific policy initiatives in social security and community care * a new typology of welfare citizenship.