The Ramayana Is Derived Basically From Valmiki'S Sanskrit Classics. The Epic Exemplifies Righteous Outlook And Action, Devotion To Duty, Fearlessness And Compassion. The Reading Of Saga Has Been Deemed, Through The Ages, To Bestow Merit, Besides Literary Joy. The Epic Is One Of The Most Widely Read Lore In Indian Homes, And Abroad. Rama'S Story Has, Through Generations, Influenced The Quality Of Human Beings, The Poet Himself Offering The Testament Of A Supreme Transformation.
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The Social Conditions Of Ancient India Have To Be Patiently Reconstructed By Gathering Together The Data Available From Archaeology And Literature. It Is Impossible For One Individual, Even In A Lifetime, To Examine Critically All The Information At His Disposal .To The Archaeologist India Presents A Fund Of Sociological Data Covering, At Least, Five Thousand Years. And The Student Of Her Literature Finds More Elaborate And Informative Evidence In Literary Works, The Earliest Of Which Cannot Under Any Circumstances Be Dated Later Than 1000 B.C. A Careful Study Of The Facts So Available Is Absolutely Necessary If We Are To Have A Complete And Reliable Picture Of Ancient Indian Society. It Is For This Purpose That The Sociological Data Of The Ramayana Are Subjected To A Detailed Scrutiny In This Publication.Although The Ramayana Contains Very Valuable Information For The Study Of The Social Conditions Of India, It Had Been For Many Years Overshadowed By The Great Epic, The Mahabharata. There Are Fewer Works Dealing With The Sociological Data Of The Ramayana, Even Though The Scholars Who Worked On The Mahabharata Occasionally Referred To It.In This Publication, An Attempt Has Been Made To Discuss As Many Aspects Of The Ancient Indian Society As Practicable. While The First Chapter Has Been Devoted To Establish The History, The Date And The Historicity Of The Text, Which Is Our Source Book, The Other Eight Chapters Discuss The Evidence, Which Has Been Called From The Ramayana With Meticulous Care After Study Of All Three Recensions, Available Both In Printed Editions And Manuscripts. No Less Than Fifty-Five Different Aspects Are Dealt With In These Ten Chapters Ranging From Geographical Data To Religious And Philosophical Teaching. It Is Gratifying ,States One Of Its Critics, To Note That His Attitude In Respect Of The Problems Discussed By Him Is Quite Reasonable And Non-Dogmatic. The Society Of The Ramayana Contains The Results Of The Researches Conducted By Dr. Ananda Guruge During The Years 1951 And 1952 In Ceylon And India Under The Guidance Of Professor O.H.De A.Wijesekera, Professor Of Sanskrit, University Of Ceylon, Peradeniya. It Was Presented To The University Of Ceylon In 1953 Under The Title Social Conditions Of Ancient India As Reflected In The Ramayana And Was Accepted For The Ph.D. Degree.Since Its Publication In Sri Lanka In 1960, It Has Been Widely Used By Scholars Throughout The World, As Demonstrated By Scholars Throughout The World, As Demonstrated By Numerous References In Monographs And Articles. Referring To The Wealth Of Data In The Ramayana Translation, Describes In 1984 Dr. Guruge S Work As The Elaborate And Useful Treatment. In 1965. It Was Translated Into Tamil, As Ramayana Samudayam Dr. Guruge Is Currently Sri Lanka S Ambassador And Permanent Delegate To Unesco In Paris, France.
Local renderings of the two Indian epics Ramayana and Mahabharata in Malay and Javanese literature have existed since around the ninth and tenth centuries. In the following centuries new versions were created alongside the old ones, and these opened up interesting new directions. They questioned the views of previous versions and laid different accents, in a continuous process of modernization and adaptation, successfully satisfying the curiosity of their audiences for more than a thousand years. Much of this history is still unclear. For a long time, scholarly research made little progress, due to its preoccupation with problems of origin. The present volume, going beyond identifying sources, analyses the socio-literary contexts and ideological foundations of seemingly similar contents and concepts in different periods; it examines the literary functions of borrowing and intertextual referencing, and calls upon the visual arts to illustrate the independent character of the epic tradition in Southeast Asia.
This is the fourth volume of a translation of India's most beloved and influential epic tale--the Ramayana of Valmiki. As befits its position at the center of the work, Volume IV presents the hero Rama at the turning point of his fortunes. Having previously lost first his kingship and then his wife, he now forms an alliance with the monkey prince, Sugriva. Rama needs the monkeys to help him find his abducted wife, Sita, and they do finally discover where her abductor has taken her. But first Rama must agree to secure for his new ally the throne of the monkey kingdom by eliminating the reigning king, Sugriva's detested elder brother, Valin. The tragic rivalry between the two monkey brothers is in sharp contrast to Rama's affectionate relationship with his own brothers and forms a self-contained episode within the larger story of Rama's adventures. This volume continues the translation of the critical edition of the Valmiki Ramayana, a version considerably reduced from the vulgate on which all previous translations were based. It is accompanied by extensive notes on the original Sanskrit text and on several untranslated early Sanskrit commentaries.
Contributed articles presented at First International Conference On Ramayana and Mahabharata, organized by the Department of Indian Studies, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.
Rama, the prince of Ayodha, is exiled to the forest, but after many adventures he discovers that his wife has been abducted by Ravana, the king of demons, and Rama needs the help of Hanuman and his army of monkeys to rescue her.
The greatest Indian epic, one of the world's supreme masterpieces of storytelling A sweeping tale of abduction, battle, and courtship played out in a universe of deities and demons, The Ramayana is familiar to virtually every Indian. Although the Sanskrit original was composed by Valmiki around the fourth century BC, poets have produced countless versions in different languages. Here, drawing on the work of an eleventh-century poet called Kamban, Narayan employs the skills of a master novelist to re-create the excitement he found in the original. A luminous saga made accessible to new generations of readers, The Ramayana can be enjoyed for its spiritual wisdom, or as a thrilling tale of ancient conflict. For more than seventy years, Penguin has been the leading publisher of classic literature in the English-speaking world. With more than 1,700 titles, Penguin Classics represents a global bookshelf of the best works throughout history and across genres and disciplines. Readers trust the series to provide authoritative texts enhanced by introductions and notes by distinguished scholars and contemporary authors, as well as up-to-date translations by award-winning translators. From the Trade Paperback edition.
This beautifully produced series provides a perfect introduction to the world's six main faiths through their sacred texts, showing how they were compiled and/or written, and how people have used them as a guide through their lives.