In 1961, Moore and Miljanic in collaboration with N. L Kusters developed the current comparator, for which a patent was granted in 1964. Since that time they and their associates have applied this technique toward advancing the art of electrical measurement. The current comparator comprises a special configuration of concentric toroidal magnetic cores and windings which enable the physical realisation of a very precise ampere-turns ratio standard. It provides the basis for the precise measurement of various electrical quantities at both direct and alternating currents using current ratio techniques. Applications include the calibration of instrument transformers, measurement of the losses of high voltage capacitors and inductive reactors, measurement of the short circuit losses of large power transformers, the calibration of power and energy meters, an alternating current impedance bridge, direct current resistance measurements, the calibration of high direct current metering systems and shunts, a seven decade direct current potentiometer, and a 20 bit digital-to-analogue converter. The book presents the basic theory of the current comparator, methods of construction leading to high ratio accuracies, and the operating principles of the various applications.
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In 1926, Gertrude Ederle became the first female to swim the English Channel—and broke the existing record time in doing so. Although today she is considered a pioneer in women’s swimming, women were swimming competitively 50 years earlier. This historical book details the early period of women’s competitive swimming in the United States, from its beginnings in the nineteenth century through Ederle’s astonishing accomplishment. Women and girls faced many obstacles to safe swimming opportunities, including restrictive beliefs about physical abilities, access to safe and clean water, bathing suits that impeded movement and became heavy in water, and opposition from official sporting organizations. The stories of these early swimmers plainly show how far female athletes have come.
The Current in Criticism is meant to provide the reader witha wide spectrum of current thinking, a sampling of some of the arguments,attitudes, and perspectives, which participate in the swirl of intensespeculative energy that is so characteristic of contemporary theory. Theeditors describe this collection of 14 essays as "a tentative assessment ofwhere we are and where we might be going in literary study, of what is currentin criticism and of where the critical current might be tending."
This state-of-the-art volume presents an outstanding collection of 22 studies on current issues facing research in second-language acquisition (SLA). The editors sought contributions for this volume from seasoned veterans of SLA like Lydia White and Susan Gass, from well-known researchers in linguistics and/or first-language acquisition like Haj Ross and Harald Clahsen, and from relative newcomers to the field like India Plough and Jean-Marc Dewaele. The topics covered range from the role of universals at various levels of second-language (L2) knowledge; the way that linguistic knowledge is represented by L2 learners; the changing nature of linguistic theory itself; and the definition of usage phenomena like style shifting and code switching. The introduction to "The Current State of Interlanguage" gives a concise yet detailed overview of research in the field over the past 10 years, and focuses on the present growing concensus on a number of issues that were at one point highly controversial.
This paper presents a model of current account determination, based upon the permanent-income hypothesis. A present-value relationship among the current account, changes in net output, the exchange rate and the terms of trade is derived and the implications of such a relationship are tested using data for Nigeria during 1960-97. This paper presents a model of current account determination, based upon the permanent-income hypothesis. A present-value relationship among the current account, changes in net output, the exchange rate and the terms of trade is derived and the implications of such a relationship are tested using data for Nigeria during 1960-97.
The essays that comprise this study eschew stereotypical representations of a politicized Islam in the Mediterranean Region. The contributors consider the reality that lies behind current issues in the area and the role that an embedded Islam has played or may play in the region.
The ongoing negotiations at the World Trade Organisation (WTO) are a chance for developing countries to tackle the imbalances in existing WTO rules which have denied them a fair share of the benefits of international trade. This book looks at how they can best make use of this opportunity, within the negotiating parameters that have been set. It makes detailed suggestions on negotiating positions the developing countries can take to advance their interests and guard against the risk of even more inequitable new commitments. It also considers ways to create a negotiating environment in the WTO that is fairer for poor and rich countries alike. The options presented will help developing countries to select appropriate strategies and to evaluate outcomes.
This paper examines the relationship between fiscal policy and the current account, drawing on a larger country sample than in previous studies and using panel regressions, vector autoregressions, and an analysis of large fiscal and external adjustments. On average, a strengthening in the fiscal balance by 1 percentage point of GDP is associated with a current account improvement of 0.2–0.3 percentage point of GDP. This association is as strong in emerging and low-income countries as it is in advanced economies; and significantly higher when output is above potential.
This paper examines the empirical link between fiscal policy and the current account focusing on microstates defined as countries with a population of less than 2 million between 1970 and 2009. The paper employs panel regression and panel vector autoregression (VAR) on 155 countries of which 42 are microstates. Panel regression results show that a percentage point improvement in the fiscal balance improves the current account balance by 0.4 percentage points of GDP. The real effective exchange rate has no significant impact on the current account in microstates but the coefficient is significant in the global sample. Panel VAR results show that an increase in government consumption results in real exchange appreciation but the effect on the current account after an initial deterioration dies out quicker in microstates than in the global sample. The result implies that fiscal policy has little effect on the current account in microstates beyond its direct impact on imports. Overall, the results suggest that the weak relative price effects make the effect of fiscal adjustment on the current account much more difficult in microstates.