the contaminated man
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Proceedings of the Fifth International FZK/TNO Conference on Contaminated Soil, 30 October-3 November, 1995, Maastricht, the Netherlands
Contaminated land and the methods and legal controls governing its reclamation for subsequent development and use are of great current interest and concern. This volume in the Issues in Environmental Science and Technology series contains seven articles which treat the many aspects of this subject, ranging from risk assessment and risk management, through specific remediation methods and the evolution of government policy and controls, to analysis of the legal and technical features of specific environmental insurance policies. The chemistry of the non-ferrous heavy metals lead, zinc and cadmium is examined in relation to reclamation of superfund sites in the USA alongside a consideration of the role of the Welsh Development Agency in developing strategies for the recovery of derelict and contaminated land. An authoritative treatment of each of the topics is ensured by the particular expertise and distinction of the authors, and as such Contaminated Land and Its Reclamation will make an important contribution to the public debate on these issues. It will be essential reading for all those groups of people directly or indirectly involved, from consultants and their technical advisors, through developers, contractors and landowners, to local authorities and government agencies with responsibility for policy and its implementation in this area.
And ConclusionsReferences; III METHODS OF WASTE DISPOSAL ; 4 Shallow Land Burial of Municipal Wastes; Introduction; Leachate Characteristics; Gas Production; Hydrogeologic Criteria; Unsaturated Flow; Site Size; Water Balance; Trench Covers; Trench Liners; Monitoring; Monitoring Methodology; Verification of Contamination; Conclusions; References; 5 Deep Burial Of Toxic Wastes; Introduction; Methods of Disposal; Advantages and Disadvantages of Deep Burial; A Hypothetical Repository; Hydrogeologic Properties of Rocks at Depth; General Data from Wells and Test Holes; Geochemical Evidence.
F. J. COLON Chairman of the Scientific Committee TNO Division of Technology for Society, APELDOORN, The NETHERLANDS Only these past few years have we gained an insight into the full extent of the problems associated with contaminated soils. The first efforts to take effective remedial action at contaminated sites were seriously hampered by the lack of experience, knowledge and technology. Fortunately, this handicap has been partly alleviated by the experience we have gained in the numerous cases we have had, and -unfortunately still have to deal with. This meeting on contaminated soil is the first international conference to cover such a wide variety of subjects related to the problems that confront us in practice: behaviour of contaminants in soil - impacts on public health and the enviornment - role of governments and other authorities - site investigation and analysis - techniques for remedial action - management of remedial action and risk assessment - safety - case studies This Conference has been organized by the Netherlands Organization for Applied Scientific Research (TNO) in co-operation with the Netherlands Ministry of Housing, Physical Planning and the Environment (VROM). It goes without saying that the preparation would not have been possible without the assistance of many people throughout the world and the co-operation between government, industry and research organizations.
With more than 50% of the world’s population already living in towns and cities, migration from rural areas continuing at an alarming rate in developing countries and suburbanisation using more and more land in developed countries, the urban environment has become supremely important with regard to human health and wellbeing. For centuries, urbanisation has caused relatively low level soil conta- nation mainly by various wastes. However, from the time of the Industrial Revolution onwards, both the scale of urban development and the degree of soil contamination rapidly increased and involved an ever widening spectrum of c- taminants. With constraints on the supply of land for new urban development in many countries, it is becoming increasingly necessary to re-use previously dev- oped (brownfield) sites and to deal with their accompanying suites of contaminants. It is therefore essential to fully understand the diversity and properties of urban soils, to assess the possible risks from the contaminants they contain and devise ways of cleaning up sites and/or minimizing hazards. The author, Helmut Meuser, is Professor of Soil Protection and Soil Clean-up at the University of Applied Sciences, Osnabrück and is one of Europe’s foremost experts on contamination from technogenic materials in urban soils. He has many years’ experience of research in Berlin, Essen, Osnabrück, other regions of Germany, and several other countries.
Most of the nuclear facilities built since the Second World War have ceased active operation and have been decommissioned. Some of the sites are heavily contaminated with radioactive substances. Correct and efficient action to mitigate the radiological consequences of such contamination will only be possible when the behaviour of radionuclides in the terrestrial environment is sufficiently well known. Yet radioecologists often find it difficult to study the transfer of radioactivity in agricultural land and semi-natural ecosystems, because of the complexity and diversity of such environments. The present book presents an analysis of all the factors that affect the behaviour of radionuclides as they move from their point of release through the environment and then enter the tissues of biota living in the ecosystems, in particular plants and animals consumed by humans. The course on which the book is based was held in a region that is heavily contaminated by radioactive discharges into the environment during nuclear weapons fabrication in the 1950s and '60s, and due to a severe accidental release following the explosion of a rad-waste tank in 1957. This allowed in situ training of the students. The book's main emphasis is on specific radioecological problems in severely contaminated areas in the former Soviet Union: the Southern Urals Trail, the rivers Techa-Isert-Tobol-Irtis-Ob, and the 30 km zone around Chernobyl. Systems examined include soils, arable and pasture land, forests, lakes and rivers. Special attention is paid to the effects of radiation on natural ecosystems: trees, soil-dwelling organisms, and aquatic organisms. Synergistic effects are also considered. Short, medium and long term countermeasures are discussed.
This publication presents the latest information on zoonoses and zoonotic diseases in Latin America and the rest of the world. These are two groups of communicable diseases: those transmitted from vertebrate animals to humans; and those common to humans and animals. This volume focuses on bacterial infections and diseases caused by fungi. It contains tables and figures that help explain the transmission cycle and the geographic distribution and prevalence of many of these diseases.
GROUNDWATER RESOURCE, EFFECTS ON PUBLIC HEALTH, EXTENT OF CONTAMINATION, MONITORING QUALITY OF GROUNDWATER; PREVENTING AND CONTROLLING CONTAMINATION, REHABILITATION OF AQUIFERS, PROPOSED STRATEGIES FOR THE PROTECTION OF GROUNDWATER; AQUIFER CLASSIFICATION, FEDERAL STATUTES, STATE AND LOCAL PROTECTION PROGRAMS.
In a western Ukraine wine cellar in 1985, Chernobyl engineer Mihaly Horvath discloses the unnecessary risks associated with the power plant to his brother, Kiev Militia detective Lazlo. Spawned by a desire to protect his family, Lazlo investigates—irritating his superiors, drawing the attention of a CIA operative, raising the hackles of an old KGB major, and ultimately discovering his brother’s secret affair with a Chernobyl technician, Juli Popovics. After the explosion, the Ukraine is not only blanketed with deadly radiation, but also becomes a killing ground involving pre-perestroika factions in disarray, a Soviet government on its last legs, and madmen hungry for power. With a poisoned environment at their backs and a killer snapping at their heels, Lazlo and Juli flee for their lives—and their love—in this engrossing political thriller.