second and third generation of feedstocks

Second And Third Generation Of Feedstocks
Author: Angelo Basile
Publisher: Elsevier
Release Date: 2019-03-23
Pages: 654
ISBN:
Available Language: English, Spanish, And French
EBOOK SYNOPSIS:

Second and Third Generation of Feedstocks: The Evolution of Biofuels presents a critical analysis of both the applications and potential of bioenergy production from second and third generation feedstocks. The book illustrates different aspects of the processes used for the production of biofuels, dealing specifically with second and third generation feedstocks from biomass and algae. The pretreatment of feedstocks and optimization of various forms of bioenergy are considered, along with the economic aspects of the various processes. In the last few years, industrial research efforts have focused on low cost, large-scale processing for lignocellulosic feedstocks originating from agricultural residues and municipal wastes for bioenergy production. This book shares an insight into the recent developments taking place in this industry, exploring transformation processes as well as biomass and algae conversions. Reviews existing lignocellulosic biomass feedstocks and their sources Includes processes for the conversion of various feedstocks to biofuels Discusses current research findings on second and third generation feedstocks Describes processes involved in the transformation of algal biomass into biofuels

Third Generation Biofuels
Author: Pratima Bajpai
Publisher: Springer
Release Date: 2018-10-10
Pages: 76
ISBN:
Available Language: English, Spanish, And French
EBOOK SYNOPSIS:

Growing concerns about the rapid depletion of fossil fuel reserves, rising crude oil prices, energy security and global climate change have led to increased worldwide interest in renewable energy sources such as biofuels. In this context, biofuel production from renewable sources is considered to be one of the most sustainable alternatives to fossil fuels and a viable means of achieving environmental and economic sustainability. Although biofuel processes hold great potential to provide a carbon-neutral route to fuel production, first-generation production systems are characterized by considerable economic and environmental limitations. The advent of second-generation biofuels is intended to produce fuels from lignocellulosic biomass, the woody part of plants that does not compete with food production. However, converting woody biomass into fermentable sugars requires costly technologies. Therefore, third-generation biofuels from microalgae are considered to be a viable alternative energy resource, free from the major drawbacks associated with first and second-generation biofuels. This book examines the background of third-generation biofuel production; the advantages of algae over traditional biofuel crops; algal biomass production; algae harvesting and drying methods; production of biofuel from microalgae; and future prospects.

Algal Biofuels In Canada  Status And Potential
Author:
Publisher:
Release Date: 2015
Pages:
ISBN:
Available Language: English, Spanish, And French
EBOOK SYNOPSIS:

Abstract: The last decade has seen an emergence of biofuels owed in part to social and political acknowledgement that fossil fuels are a finite resource. This is evidenced by a reduction in the discovery of new fossil fuel sources and the exploitation of more energy intense reserves such as shale gas and tar sands. As a result of this reality, biofuel research and development has progressed through several stages globally and within Canada. First and second generation bioethanol production currently dominates the market, leading to concerns over sustainability while only partially addressing the issue at hand. Third generation biofuel feedstocks, derived from microalgae and cyanobacteria, present the potential to address the short falls of both first and second generation feedstocks. Specifically, third generation biofuels offer increased productivity and the opportunity to sequester nutrients from waste streams whilst also expanding the biofuel pallet to include biodiesel, as well as other target compounds. However, third generation feedstocks remain a young technology that presents several limitations, including the lack of a complement of suitable traits within a single species. Moreover, common assumptions over the use of waste streams to improve productivity and sustainability may limit scalability. These, in turn, may limit development or dictate smaller regionally located processes. The presented manuscript demonstrates that in spite of their potential, mandates and funding support for third generation biofuel feedstocks are largely overlooked within Canada, a factor that may severely limit future Canadian biofuels research, and the development of technologies to address future carbon emissions.

Quality Living Through Chemurgy And Green Chemistry
Author: Peter C.K. Lau
Publisher: Springer
Release Date: 2017-01-25
Pages: 369
ISBN:
Available Language: English, Spanish, And French
EBOOK SYNOPSIS:

This book is intended to give readers an appreciation of what the future holds, as cutting-edge technologies in synthetic biology and pathway engineering and advanced bioprocessing development pave the way for providing goods and services to benefit humankind that are based on the synergy of two biomasses - i.e. of what a renewable feedstock could yield and an infinite microbial biomass could provide in terms of enzymes and biocatalysts. This 13-chapter book, with an introductory treatise on the guiding principles of green chemistry and engineering metrics, brings together a broad range of research and innovation agendas and perspectives from industries, academia and government laboratories using renewable feedstocks that include macroalgae and lignins. In addition, social-economic aspects and the pillars of competitiveness in regional cluster development are explored as we transition from fossil-fuel-based economies to a circular bioeconomy, with chemurgy and green chemistry being implicit to the innovation movement. The bulk of the book covers specific applications including the bioproduction of amino sugars, dicarboxylic acids, omega-3 fatty acids, starch and fermentable sugars from lignocellulosic materials, and phenolics as building blocks for polymer synthesis. Enzymatic systems for accessing chiral and special-purpose chemicals, as well as the development of specialized enzymes from macroalgae for biofuel and biochemical production are also addressed. Research gaps, hurdles to overcome in various biological processes, and present achievements in the production of biofuels and biochemicals from lignocellulosic materials are discussed. Going beyond the conventional expectation of discussing the production of drop-in chemicals, the book instead emphasizes how the potential of new chemicals and materials can be harnessed through innovative thinking and research. As such, it provides an invaluable reference source for researchers and graduate students interested in Chemurgy and Green Chemistry, as well as for practitioners in the field of industrial biotechnology and biobased industry. Peter C.K. Lau is a Distinguished Professor at Tianjin Institute of Industrial Biotechnology of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, and an Adjunct Professor at the Departments of Chemistry and Microbiology & Immunology, McGill University, Canada.

Structural Health Monitoring Of Biocomposites  Fibre Reinforced Composites And Hybrid Composites
Author: Mohammad Jawaid
Publisher: Woodhead Publishing
Release Date: 2018-11-23
Pages: 322
ISBN:
Available Language: English, Spanish, And French
EBOOK SYNOPSIS:

Structural Health Monitoring of Biocomposites, Fibre-Reinforced Composites and Hybrid Composites provides detailed information on failure analysis, mechanical and physical properties, structural health monitoring, durability and life prediction, modelling of damage processes of natural fiber, synthetic fibers, and natural/natural, and natural/synthetic fiber hybrid composites. It provides a comprehensive review of both established and promising new technologies currently under development in the emerging area of structural health monitoring in aerospace, construction and automotive structures. In addition, it describes SHM methods and sensors related to specific composites and how advantages and limitations of various sensors and methods can help make informed choices. Written by leading experts in the field, and covering composite materials developed from different natural fibers and their hybridization with synthetic fibers, the book's chapters provide cutting-edge, up-to-date research on the characterization, analysis and modelling of composite materials. Contains contributions from leading experts in the field Discusses recent progress on failure analysis, SHM, durability, life prediction and the modelling of damage in natural fiber-based composite materials Covers experimental, analytical and numerical analysis Provides detailed and comprehensive information on mechanical properties, testing methods and modelling techniques

House Of Lords   Science And Technology Select Committee  Waste Or Resource  Stimulating A Bioeconomy   HL 141
Author: Great Britain: Parliament: House of Lords: Science and Technology Committee
Publisher: The Stationery Office
Release Date: 2014-03-06
Pages: 68
ISBN:
Available Language: English, Spanish, And French
EBOOK SYNOPSIS:

The Select Committee report Waste Or Resource? Stimulating A Bioeconomy? (HL 141) advises that the UK could miss out on a massive opportunity to create a flourishing multibillion pound economy from waste. Although there are many kinds of waste generated from a variety of sources, the Lords inquiry looked specifically at waste which contains carbon. Around 100 million tons of carbon-containing-waste are available every year which could potentially be exploited as a resource. While preventing the creation of waste in the first place is a laudable policy goal, it is inevitable that there will always be waste, or unavoidable by-products such as orange peel, coffee grounds or waste gas from factories and power stations. Using cutting edge technologies, wastes such as these can be converted into valuable products such as fuels, flavors and fragrances, plastics, paint or pharmaceuticals. There are environmental benefits to be had from harnessing the was

Application Of Microalgae In Wastewater Treatment
Author: Sanjay Kumar Gupta
Publisher: Springer
Release Date: 2019-05-23
Pages: 563
ISBN:
Available Language: English, Spanish, And French
EBOOK SYNOPSIS:

This two-volume work presents comprehensive, accurate information on the present status and contemporary development in phycoremediation of various types of domestic and industrial wastewaters. The volume covers a mechanistic understanding of microalgae based treatment of wastewaters, including current challenges in the treatment of various organic and inorganic pollutants, and future opportunities of bioremediation of wastewater and industrial effluents on an algal platform. The editors compile the work of authors from around the globe, providing insight on key issues and state-of-the-art developments in algal bioremediation that is missing from the currently available body of literature. The volume hopes to serve as a much needed resource for professors, researchers and scientists interested in microalgae applications for wastewater treatment. Volume 2 addresses the various biorefinery aspects and applications of algal-based wastewater treatment in industrial and domestic contexts. The analyses are approached from multiple perspectives, including biotechnology, commercial, economic, and sustainability. The authors discuss the potential of microalgae for integrated biomass production utilizing various resources to treat wastewaters, and include evaluations of the economical and commercialization potential for such processes.

Handbook Of Bioenergy
Author: Sandra D. Eksioglu
Publisher: Springer
Release Date: 2015-08-11
Pages: 343
ISBN:
Available Language: English, Spanish, And French
EBOOK SYNOPSIS:

This handbook brings together recent advances in the areas of supply chain optimization, supply chain management, and life-cycle cost analysis of bioenergy. These topics are important for the development and long-term sustainability of the bioenergy industry. The increasing interest in bioenergy has been motivated by its potential to become a key future energy source. The opportunities and challenges that this industry has been facing have been the motivation for a number of optimization-related works on bioenergy. Practitioners and academicians agree that the two major barriers of further investments in this industry are biomass supply uncertainty and costs. The goal of this handbook is to present several cutting-edge developments and tools to help the industry overcome these supply chain and economic challenges. Case studies highlighting the problems faced by investors in the US and Europe illustrate the impact of certain tools in making bioenergy an economically viable energy option.

Theoretical Considerations For Economics Of Second  And Third  Generation Biofuels
Author: Fouzia Tabssum
Publisher:
Release Date: 2017
Pages:
ISBN:
Available Language: English, Spanish, And French
EBOOK SYNOPSIS:

Ground is being prepared all over the world for installation of biofuel plants which can govern the sustainable supply of cleaner fuels at affordable prices and predictable amounts. At the dawn of this century biofuels identified low cost feedstocks, their diverse pretreatments, different methods of saccharifications and fermentations and those for cultivation of biodiesel yielding organisms. Bioalcohols, biohydrogen and biogas represent the biofuels which are derived from microbial work on the biowaste-resources. Extensions in this sector have focused the solar energy captured by the microalgae from which oils can be extracted for biodiesel. Undoubtedly, all forms of available energies on this planet earth had/have been derived, directly or indirectly, from the solar inputs. In this chapter pivotal role of solar insolation will be discussed albeit for regeneration as well as processing of lignocellulosic biomass for obtaining biofuels. Conclusively, biofuels' sustainable supplies, role of solar energy has been dreamt at various steps of the process; from the collection of biowaste resources through steps of pretreatment, saccharification / fermentation and purification of the product. This chapter discusses the subject matter into two major sub-headings: 1) Biofuels from lignocellulosic / food industrial wastes and 2) Cultivation of microbes for biodiesel.

Liquid Biofuels  Emergence  Development And Prospects
Author: Antonio Domingos Padula
Publisher: Springer
Release Date: 2014-07-03
Pages: 272
ISBN:
Available Language: English, Spanish, And French
EBOOK SYNOPSIS:

Bioenergy is coming to be seen as a priority on the international agenda, with the use of liquid biofuels a key strategy in the attempt to meet both the demand for environmental sustainability and the energy needs of countries. The growth in the production and use of biofuels around the world has led to increased interest and discussion about this subject. Given the dynamics of this phenomenon, the organizers of this book, based on more than 10 years experience of joint research on this subject, seek to address key issues relating to the production and marketing of liquid biofuels using the Brazilian experience with ethanol and biodiesel as an illustrative case, as well as the experiences of the leading producers and consumers of biofuels. The topics to be covered in this book include the role of public policies in fostering the emergence of the biofuels industry, the main socio-economic, environmental, technological aspects and the prospects for the sector. The conceptual and methodological bases that provide analytical support to the book are based on recent research published in indexed journals. The structure and content of the book seek to address some central issues regarding: How the biofuel industries have emerged and developed in different countries? What factors have been crucial to the success or failure of different production initiatives? What are the main socio-economic-environmental impacts of the production and consumption of liquid biofuels? How are national and international markets for liquid biofuels being structured? To what extent and/or in what conditions can the experiences and lessons learned at the national level be transferred and adapted in other countries? Finally, based on the scenarios, the prospects for liquid biofuels will be discussed.

Fundamentals Of Petroleum And Petrochemical Engineering
Author: Uttam Ray Chaudhuri
Publisher: CRC Press
Release Date: 2016-04-19
Pages: 411
ISBN:
Available Language: English, Spanish, And French
EBOOK SYNOPSIS:

The supply of petroleum continues to dwindle at an alarming rate, yet it is the source of a range of products- from gasoline and diesel to plastic, rubber, and synthetic fiber. Critical to the future of this commodity is that we learn to use it more judiciously and efficiently. Fundamentals of Petroleum and Petrochemical Engineering provides a holi

The Four Generations Of Biofuels Including Green Diesel  Vegetable Oil Fuel  Algae Fuel  And Cellulosic Ethanol
Author: Patrick Sing
Publisher: Webster's Digital Services
Release Date: 2012-05
Pages: 194
ISBN:
Available Language: English, Spanish, And French
EBOOK SYNOPSIS:

Please note that the content of this book primarily consists of articles available from Wikipedia or other free sources online. Biofuels are a wide range of fuels which are in some way derived from biomass. The term covers solid biomass, liquid fuels and various biogases. First-generation biofuels are made from sugar, starch, vegetable oil or animal fats using conventional technology. Second generation biofuels are derived from lignocellulosic crops. Plants are made from lignin and cellulose, second generation technology allows these two components of a plant to be split. Algae fuel, also called oilgae or third generation biofuel, is made from algae. Algae is low-input, high-yield feedstocks to produce biofuels. While there is no one established definition of "fourth-generation biofuels," some have referred to it as the biofuels created from processes other than first generation ethanol and biodiesel, second generation cellulosic ethanol, and third generation algae biofuel. This book studies the four generations of biofuels including biogas, syngas, algenol, and biogasoline. Project Webster represents a new publishing paradigm, allowing disparate content sources to be curated into cohesive, relevant, and informative books. To date, this content has been curated from Wikipedia articles and images under Creative Commons licensing, although as Project Webster continues to increase in scope and dimension, more licensed and public domain content is being added. We believe books such as this represent a new and exciting lexicon in the sharing of human knowledge.

The Chemical Engineer
Author:
Publisher:
Release Date: 2008
Pages:
ISBN:
Available Language: English, Spanish, And French
EBOOK SYNOPSIS:

Advances In Biodiesel Production
Author: R Luque
Publisher: Elsevier
Release Date: 2012-02-22
Pages: 304
ISBN:
Available Language: English, Spanish, And French
EBOOK SYNOPSIS:

Biodiesel is one of the main biofuels capable of substituting fossil fuel usage in compression ignition vehicles, and is used in a variety of fuel blends worldwide. First-generation biodiesel has been used in national markets for some time, with fuel quality standards in place for this purpose. There remain, however, several restrictions to sustainable and long term market development, which is influenced by many factors, including food vs. fuel pressures. The development of new generations of biodiesel, aimed at more sustainable and effective feedstock utilisation alongside improved production efficiency and fuel quality, is critical to the future both of this industry and of the continuing use of biodiesel fuels in transportation. This book provides a timely reference on the advances in the development of biodiesel fuels, production processes and technologies. Part one reviews the life cycle sustainability assessment and socio-economic and environmental policy issues associated with advanced biodiesel production, as well as feedstocks and fuel quality standards. This coverage is extended in Part two, with chapters focussing on the development of methods and catalysts essential to the improvement and optimisation of biodiesel production processes and technologies. With its distinguished editors and international team of contributors, Advances in biodiesel production a standard reference for chemical, biochemical and industrial process engineers, as well as scientists and researchers in this important field. Provides a timely reference on the advances in the development of biodiesel fuels, production processes and technologies Reviews the life cycle sustainability assessment and socio-economic and environmental policy issues associated with advanced biodiesel production, as well as feedstocks and fuel quality standards Discusses the development of methods and catalysts essential to the improvement and optimisation of biodiesel production processes and technologies

Life Cycle Assessment Of Renewable Energy Sources
Author: Anoop Singh
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
Release Date: 2013-09-02
Pages: 293
ISBN:
Available Language: English, Spanish, And French
EBOOK SYNOPSIS:

Governments are setting challenging targets to increase the production of energy and transport fuel from sustainable sources. The emphasis is increasingly on renewable sources including wind, solar, geothermal, biomass based biofuel, photovoltaics or energy recovery from waste. What are the environmental consequences of adopting these other sources? How do these various sources compare to each other? Life Cycle Assessment of Renewable Energy Sources tries to answer these questions based on the universally adopted method of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). This book introduces the concept and importance of LCA in the framework of renewable energy sources and discusses the key issues in conducting their LCA. This is followed by an in-depth discussion of LCA for some of the most common bioenergy sources such as agricultural production systems for biogas and bioethanol, biogas from grass, biodiesel from palm oil, biodiesel from used cooking oil and animal fat, Jatropha biodiesel, lignocellulosic bioethanol, ethanol from cassava and sugarcane molasses, residential photovoltaic systems, wind energy, microalgal biodiesel, biohydrogen and biomethane. Through real examples, the versatility of LCA is well emphasized. Written by experts all over the globe, the book is a cornucopia of information on LCA of bioenergy systems and provides a platform for stimulation of new ideas and thoughts. The book is targeted at practitioners of LCA and will become a useful tool for researchers working on different aspects of bioenergy.

Journal Of Scientific And Industrial Research
Author:
Publisher:
Release Date: 2011-07
Pages:
ISBN:
Available Language: English, Spanish, And French
EBOOK SYNOPSIS:

Principles Of Biofuels And Hydrogen Gas  Production And Engine Performance
Author: Ahindra Nag
Publisher: McGraw Hill Professional
Release Date: 2020-09-18
Pages: 400
ISBN:
Available Language: English, Spanish, And French
EBOOK SYNOPSIS:

Publisher's Note: Products purchased from Third Party sellers are not guaranteed by the publisher for quality, authenticity, or access to any online entitlements included with the product. Explore the latest processes, techniques, and technologies to economically refine and produce biofuels Featuring contributions from a wide range of experts in the field, this comprehensive guide explores biofuel chemistry, refining processes, and performance characteristics. Unlike most biofuel resources that broadly cover non-conventional energy sources, the book goes into specifics about engine performance, making it a highly valuable resource for students, researchers, and practitioners. Grounded in professional relevance and expertise, Principles of Biofuels and Hydrogen Gas: Production and Engine Performance discusses the theories and experimental procedures required to economically prepare biofuels. You will get full coverage of extraction hydrogen gas from biomass and water media as well as refining biofuels from algae and biomass. End-of-chapter questions throughout reinforce comprehension. • Provides information on biofuels that will benefit human health and the environment • Covers biofuel properties, impacts, and economic factors • Written by team of international experts led by a seasoned biofuels educator

Proceedings Of The 8th International Conference On Foundations Of Computer Aided Process Design
Author:
Publisher: Elsevier
Release Date: 2014-07-14
Pages: 840
ISBN:
Available Language: English, Spanish, And French
EBOOK SYNOPSIS:

This volume collects together the presentations at the Eighth International Conference on Foundations of Computer-Aided Process Design, FOCAPD-2014, an event that brings together researchers, educators, and practitioners to identify new challenges and opportunities for process and product design. The chemical industry is currently entering a new phase of rapid evolution. The availability of low-cost feedstocks from natural gas is causing renewed investment in basic chemicals in the OECD, while societal pressures for sustainability and energy security continue to be key drivers in technology development and product selection. This dynamic environment creates opportunities to launch new products and processes and to demonstrate new methodologies for innovation, synthesis and design. FOCAPD-2014 fosters constructive interaction among thought leaders from academia, industry, and government and provides a showcase for the latest research in product and process design. Focuses exclusively on the fundamentals and applications of computer-aided design for the process industries. Provides a fully archival and indexed record of the FOCAPD14 conference Aligns the FOCAPD series with the ESCAPE and PSE series

Sustainable Biofuels
Author: Ajay Kumar Bhardwaj
Publisher: Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co KG
Release Date: 2015-04-24
Pages: 366
ISBN:
Available Language: English, Spanish, And French
EBOOK SYNOPSIS:

With oil resources approaching their limits, biofuels have become increasingly attractive. This book provides a detailed description of the ecological implications of second and third generation biofuel feedstock production systems, beginning with an introduction to the importance of ecological sustainability alongside economic viability. The book is divided into sections describing theoretical foundation and benefits of various biofuel cropping systems, and providing a description of practical ecological limitations to achieve those fundamental benefits. The book covers such critical issues as greenhouse gas emissions, carbon balance, water cycle components, other biogeochemical and socioeconomic interactions alongside life cycle analysis principals for achieving sustainability. These are some of the most important sustainability, environmental and economic issues which biofuel industry and scientific community is seeking answers to.

Methanol  The Basic Chemical And Energy Feedstock Of The Future
Author: Martin Bertau
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
Release Date: 2014-02-18
Pages: 677
ISBN:
Available Language: English, Spanish, And French
EBOOK SYNOPSIS:

Methanol - The Chemical and Energy Feedstock of the Future offers a visionary yet unbiased view of methanol technology. Based on the groundbreaking 1986 publication "Methanol" by Friedrich Asinger, this book includes contributions by more than 40 experts from industry and academia. The authors and editors provide a comprehensive exposition of methanol chemistry and technology which is useful for a wide variety of scientists working in chemistry and energy related industries as well as academic researchers and even decision-makers and organisations concerned with the future of chemical and energy feedstocks.