This book tracks the history of the theory of relativity through Einstein’s life, with in-depth studies of its background as built upon by ideas from earlier scientists. The focus points of Einstein’s theory of relativity include its development throughout his life; the origins of his ideas and his indebtedness to the earlier works of Galileo, Newton, Faraday, Mach and others; the application of the theory to the birth of modern cosmology; and his quest for a unified field theory. Treading a fine line between the popular and technical (but not shying away from the occasional equation), this book explains the entire range of relativity and weaves an up-to-date biography of Einstein throughout. The result is an explanation of the world of relativity, based on an extensive journey into earlier physics and a simultaneous voyage into the mind of Einstein, written for the curious and intelligent reader.
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Time's 'Man of the Century', Albert Einstein is the unquestioned founder of modern physics. His theory of relativity is the most important scientific idea of the modern era. In this short book Einstein explains, using the minimum of mathematical terms, the basic ideas and principles of the theory which has shaped the world we live in today. Unsurpassed by any subsequent books on relativity, this remains the most popular and useful exposition of Einstein's immense contribution to human knowledge.
This book is an introductory text in General Relativity, while also focusing some solutions to the cosmological constant problem, which consists in an amazing 100 orders of magnitude discrepancy between the value of this constant in the present Universe, and its estimated value in the very early epoch. The author suggests that the constant is in fact, a time-varying function of the age of the Universe. The book offers a wealth of cosmological models, treats up to date findings, like the verification of the Lense-Thirring effect in the year 2004, and the recently published research by Cooperstock and Tieu (2005) suggesting that "dark" matter is not a necessary concept in order to explain the rotational velocities of stars around galaxies' nuclei. This is a mathematical cosmology textbook that may lead undergraduates, and graduate students to one of the frontiers of research, while keeping the prerequisites to a minimum, because most of the theory in the book requires only prior knowledge of Calculus and a University Physics course.
This book describes Carmeli's cosmological general and special relativity theory, along with Einstein's general and special relativity. These theories are discussed in the context of Moshe Carmeli's original research, in which velocity is introduced as an additional independent dimension. Four- and five-dimensional spaces are considered, and the five-dimensional braneworld theory is presented. The Tully-Fisher law is obtained directly from the theory, and thus it is found that there is no necessity to assume the existence of dark matter in the halo of galaxies, nor in galaxy clusters.The book gives the derivation of the Lorentz transformation, which is used in both Einstein's special relativity and Carmeli's cosmological special relativity theory. The text also provides the mathematical theory of curved space?time geometry, which is necessary to describe both Einstein's general relativity and Carmeli's cosmological general relativity. A comparison between the dynamical and kinematic aspects of the expansion of the universe is made. Comparison is also made between the Friedmann-Robertson-Walker theory and the Carmeli theory. And neither is it necessary to assume the existence of dark matter to correctly describe the expansion of the cosmos.
This Brief presents a new way of introducing relativity theory, in which perplexing relativistic effects such as time dilation and Lorentz contraction are explained prior to the discussion of Lorentz-transformation. The notion of relativistic mass is shown to contradict the spirit of relativity theory and the true significance of the mass-energy relation is contrasted with the popular view of it. The author discusses the twin paradox from the point of view of both siblings. Last but not least, the fundamentals of general relativity are described, including the recent Gravity Probe B experiment.
"This book contains a tremendous amount of information for its size. The discussions are clear and to the point... Any teacher on this subject should seriously consider as a textbook." -- The Physicist
The most important feature in this book is the simple presentation with details of calculations. It is very easy to follow. Fairly sophisticated calculations are developed very rapidly. The presentation is logical and the detailed coverage makes this book very readable and useful. The contents develop Relativity as a modern theory of motion, starting by placing it in historical perspective and proceeding to show its logical necessity. The development of the Lorentz transformation is given using only one assumption rather than two. Right away in Chapter 3, geometry as required in Special Relativity for extension to General Relativity is introduced. This enables the use of the four-vector formalism of Minkowski. By the end of Chapter 4, the general Lorentz transformations for three-dimensional motion and their relation to four-dimensional boosts have already been explained. In Chapter 5 applications of relevance in Physics are provided. After a brief introduction to elementary electromagnetic theory, it is reformulated as a theory in four-dimensions using tensors in Chapter 6. Finally in Chapter 7, the theory is extended to deal with accelerated motion as ?corrections? to Special Relativity.
Three-part treatment explores special relativity in terms of kinematics and introductory dynamics as well as general relativity. Ideal for classroom use, supplementary reading, and self-study. Numerous problems with solutions. 1969 edition.
The book is intended to serve as lecture material for courses on relativity at undergraduate level. Although there has been much written on special relativity the present book will emphasize the real applications of relativity. In addition, it will be physically designed with the use of box summaries so as to allow easy access of practical results. The book will be composed of eight chapters. Chapter 1 will give an introduction to special relativity that is the world without gravity. Implications will be presented with emphasis on time dilation and the Doppler shift as practical considerations. In Chapter 2, the four-vector representation of events will be introduced. The bulk of this chapter will deal with flat space dynamics. This will require the generalization of Newton's first and second laws. Some important astronomical applications will be discussed in Chapter 3 and in Chapter 4 some engineering applications of special relativity such as atomic clocks will be presented. Chapter 5 will be dedicated to the thorny question of gravity. The physical motivation of the theory must be examined and the geometrical interpretation presented. Chapter 6 will present astronomical applications of relativistic gravity. These include the usual solar system tests; light bending, time delay, gravitational red-shift, precession of Keplerian orbits. Chapter 7 will be dedicated to relativistic cosmology. Many of the standard cosmological concepts will be introduced, being mathematically simple but conceptually subtle. The concluding chapter will be largely dedicated to the global positioning system as an engineering problem that requires both inertial and gravitational relativity. The large interferometers designed as gravitational wave telescopes will be discussed here.