Problems in Metallurgical Thermodynamics and Kinetics provides an illustration of the calculations encountered in the study of metallurgical thermodynamics and kinetics, focusing on theoretical concepts and practical applications. The chapters of this book provide comprehensive account of the theories, including basic and applied numerical examples with solutions. Unsolved numerical examples drawn from a wide range of metallurgical processes are also provided at the end of each chapter. The topics discussed include the three laws of thermodynamics; Clausius-Clapeyron equation; fugacity, activity, and equilibrium constant; thermodynamics of electrochemical cells; and kinetics. This book is beneficial to undergraduate and postgraduate students in universities, polytechnics, and technical colleges.
problems in metallurgical thermodynamics and kinetics
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Metallurgical Thermodynamics, as well as its modified version, Thermodynamics of Materials, forms a core course in metallurgical and materials engineering, constituting one of the principal foundations in these disciplines. Designed as an undergraduate textbook, this concise and systematically organized text deals primarily with the thermodynamics of systems involving physico-chemical processes and chemical reactions, such as calculations of enthalpy, entropy and free energy changes of processes; thermodynamic properties of solutions; chemical and phase equilibria; and thermodynamics of surfaces, interfaces and defects. The major emphasis is on high-temperature systems and processes involving metals and inorganic compounds. The many worked examples, diagrams, and tables that illustrate the concepts discussed, and chapter-end problems that stimulate self-study should enable the students to study the subject with enhanced interest.
This book is dedicated to the processes of mineral transformation,recycling and reclamation of metals, for the purpose of turningmetals and alloys into a liquid state ready for pouring. Even though "process metallurgy" is one of the oldesttechnologies implemented by man, technological innovation, with thedevelopment of processes that are both focused on product qualityand economically and ecologically efficient, continues to be at theheart of these industries. This book explains the physico-chemical bases oftransformations, vital to their understanding and control(optimization of operational conditions), and the foundations interms of "process engineering" (heat and matter assessment, processcoupling: chemical reactions and transport phenomena), vital to theoptimal execution and analysis of transformation processoperations. This book is addressed to students in the field of metallurgyand to engineers facing the problem of metal and alloy development(operation of an industrial unit or development of a newprocess).
Mechanical kinetics constitutes one of the basic subjects for Metallurgical Engineering. This well-written book presents the subject of kinetics of metallurgical processes in a compressive fashion. Organized into 14 chapters, the book begins with an introduction of the broad basic concepts. It then discusses the kinetics of homogeneous and heterogeneous chemical reactions with some real-life examples from the metallurgical field. The book adequately covers the concepts of diffusion, convective mass transfer and mixing in fluids, as well as mass transfer in fluids adjacent to a solid surface. Several important processes in metallurgical and materials engineering involve reactions of porous solids with gases. The book discusses this with the help of two important reactions, namely, reduction of iron ores and gasification of carbon. It also deals with mass transfer among two fields and presents the kinetics of electrochemical reactions and phase transformation in a simple manner. The book also contains plenty of numerical worked-out examples and problems, some of which involve computer programs. The Appendix gives some important data useful for solving problems in kinetics. The book is designed for one-semester course for undergraduate students of metallurgical discipline.
This book covers various metallurgical topics, viz. roasting of sulfide minerals, matte smelting, slag, reduction of oxides and reduction smelting, interfacial phenomena, steelmaking, secondary steelmaking, role of halides in extraction of metals, refining, hydrometallurgy and electrometallurgy. Each chapter is illustrated with appropriate examples of applications of the technique in extraction of some common, reactive, rare or refractory metal together with worked out problems explaining the principle of the operation.
Chemical Metallurgy provides an understanding of the fundamental chemical principles and demonstrates the application of these principles to process metallurgy and corrosion protection. The book discusses the fundamental chemical principles involved in metallurgical reactions. Since it is felt that the understanding of quantitative thermodynamics and its application to process metallurgy often prove to be a major problem area for students, example calculations and exercises are included at the end of each section in Chapter 2. The final three chapters deal with the applications of the chemical principles to the extraction and refining of metals, metal melting and recycling, and metallic corrosion. The book is intended as an introductory text for metallurgy students studying for first degrees, TEC higher diplomas and certificates, and Graduateship of the Institution of Metallurgists. It should also be of use to scientists and engineers entering employment in the metallurgical and metal finishing industries or the teaching profession.
From the prediction of complex weather patterns to the design of swimsuits, modeling has, over the years, quietly but steadily become an essential part of almost every field and industry—and steelmaking is no exception. Factors such as visual opacity, high operating temperature, and the relatively large size of industrial reactors often preclude direct experimental observation in steel manufacturing. Therefore the industry is overwhelmingly dependent on modeling to quickly and cost-effectively provide insight into analysis, design, optimization, and control of processing. However, few, if any, books offer the adequate coverage of modeling. Addresses Fundamental Principles of Physical and Mathematical Modeling in Steelmaking Processes Modeling of Steelmaking Processes meets that ever-present demand and provides a solid knowledge base on which to build. With content designed to serve professionals and students, this book starts with an overview of steelmaking and develops into a focused description of underlying scientific fundamentals and applications. This powerful learning tool: Presents an overview of steelmaking, the relevance of modeling and measurements, the evolution of steelmaking, and modern technology Discusses emerging issues, such as environmental emissions, recycling, and product development and quality Reviews computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software Analyzes mechanistic, AI-based, and macroscopic models, to provide a holistic view of steelmaking process modeling Provides useful questions and problems, as well as a practice session on modeling, to reinforce understanding Developed as a self-tutorial, this text explores thermodynamic principles, analysis of metallurgical kinetics and transport phenomena, and key numerical methods, helping readers easily navigate a generally complex subject.
BASIC Materials Studies is a supplement to a variety of materials courses which intends to indicate how simple computer programs, such as Beginners All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code (BASIC), can be used to illustrate and clarify materials principles. The book starts by providing an introduction to BASIC including the BASIC approach, the elements and different computers and variants of BASIC, checking programs, and graphic and special commands. Chapter 2 tackles the three aspects of the structure of materials: the arrangement of atoms in crystals; the composition and quantity of phases within the structure; and the microscopical assessment of the distribution of phases in a structure. The book continues by discussing the essential theory and programs of thermodynamics and kinetics of solids; mechanical properties of polymers; and deformation and strength of crystalline materials. The last chapter of the book illustrates the materials available; the variety of their properties; and the combinations of characteristics that are available or impossible to achieve with real materials. Students with only a brief introduction to BASIC or engaged on a variety of vocational and non-vocational materials courses will find this book invaluable.