pretreatment of biomass

Pretreatment Of Biomass
Author: Ashok Pandey
Publisher: Academic Press
Release Date: 2014-09-18
Pages: 272
ISBN:
Available Language: English, Spanish, And French
EBOOK SYNOPSIS:

Pretreatment of Biomass provides general information, basic data, and knowledge on one of the most promising renewable energy sources—biomass for their pretreatment—which is one of the most essential and critical aspects of biomass-based processes development. The quest to make the environment greener, less polluted, and less hazardous has led to the concept of biorefineries for developing bio-based processes and products using biomass as a feedstock. Each kind of biomass requires some kind of pretreatment to make it suitable for bioprocess. This book provides state-of-art information on the methods currently available for this. This book provides data-based scientific information on the most advanced and innovative pretreatment of lignocellulosic and algal biomass for further processing. Pretreatment of biomass is considered one of the most expensive steps in the overall processing in a biomass-to-biofuel program. With the strong advancement in developing lignocellulose biomass- and algal biomass-based biorefineries, global focus has been on developing pretreatment methods and technologies that are technically and economically feasible. This book provides a comprehensive overview of the latest developments in methods used for the pretreatment of biomass. An entire section is devoted to the methods and technologies of algal biomass due to the increasing global attention of its use. Provides information on the most advanced and innovative pretreatament processes and technologies for biomass Covers information on lignocellulosic and algal biomass to work on the principles of biorefinery Useful for researchers intending to study scale-up Provides information on integration of processes and technologies for the pretreatment of biomass

Green Biomass Pretreatment For Biofuels Production
Author: Tingyue Gu
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
Release Date: 2013-01-03
Pages: 153
ISBN:
Available Language: English, Spanish, And French
EBOOK SYNOPSIS:

The increasing global demand for energy requires a versatile approach, prompting many researchers to focus on renewable bioenergy from different biomasses, especially cellulosic biomass. Such biomasses can be agricultural wastes, municipal wastes or direct harvests from high-yield energy corps. If properly pre-treated, the subsequent enzyme hydrolysis step is much more effective and can effectively minimises the waste disposal. Green Biomass Pretreatment for Biofuels Production reviews a range of pretreatment methods such as ammonium fiber explosion, steam explosion, dilute acid hydrolysis, alkali hydrolysis, and supercritical carbon dioxide explosion focusing on their final sugar yields from hemicellulose, glucose yields from cellulose, as well as on their feasibilities in bioenergy production processes at various scales. This book emphasises the tactical mobile and on-farm scales applications that use green pretreatments and processing technologies without the need of on-site waste treatment. Because of the varieties of different biomasses, no single pretreatment is expected to be the universal choice. Some of the pretreatment methods present niche applications are also discussed.

Pretreatment Of Lignocellulosic Biomass For Biofuel Production
Author: Pratima Bajpai
Publisher: Springer
Release Date: 2016-03-08
Pages: 87
ISBN:
Available Language: English, Spanish, And French
EBOOK SYNOPSIS:

The book describes the pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass for biomass-to-biofuel conversion processes, which is an important step in increasing ethanol production for biofuels. It also highlights the main challenges and suggests possible ways to make these technologies feasible for the biofuel industry. The biological conversion of cellulosic biomass into bioethanol is based on the chemical and biological breakdown of biomass into aqueous sugars, for example using hydrolytic enzymes. The fermentable sugars can then be further processed into ethanol or other advanced biofuels. Pretreatment is required to break down the lignin structure and disrupt the crystalline structure of cellulose so that the acids or enzymes can easily access and hydrolyze the cellulose. Pre-treatment can be the most expensive process in converting biomass to fuel, but there is great potential for improving the efficiency and lowering costs through further research and development. This book is aimed at academics and industrial practitioners who are interested in the higher production of ethanol for biofuels.

Logistics And Pretreatment Of Biomass Fuels For Gasification And Combustion
Author: J. T. G. Pierik
Publisher:
Release Date: 1995
Pages: 64
ISBN:
Available Language: English, Spanish, And French
EBOOK SYNOPSIS:

Aqueous Pretreatment Of Plant Biomass For Biological And Chemical Conversion To Fuels And Chemicals
Author: Charles E. Wyman
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
Release Date: 2013-03-27
Pages: 568
ISBN:
Available Language: English, Spanish, And French
EBOOK SYNOPSIS:

Plant biomass is attracting increasing attention as asustainable resource for large-scale production of renewable fuelsand chemicals. However, in order to successfully compete withpetroleum, it is vital that biomass conversion processes aredesigned to minimize costs and maximize yields. Advances inpretreatment technology are critical in order to develophigh-yielding, cost-competitive routes to renewable fuels andchemicals. Aqueous Pretreatment of Plant Biomass for Biological andChemical Conversion to Fuels and Chemicals presents acomprehensive overview of the currently available aqueouspretreatment technologies for cellulosic biomass, highlighting thefundamental chemistry and biology of each method, key attributesand limitations, and opportunities for future advances. Topics covered include: • The importance of biomass conversion to fuels • The role of pretreatment in biological and chemicalconversion of biomass • Composition and structure of biomass, andrecalcitrance to conversion • Fundamentals of biomass pretreatment at low, neutraland high pH • Ionic liquid and organosolv pretreatments tofractionate biomass • Comparative data for application of leadingpretreatments and effect of enzyme formulations • Physical and chemical features of pretreatedbiomass • Economics of pretreatment for biologicalprocessing • Methods of analysis and enzymatic conversion ofbiomass streams • Experimental pretreatment systems from multiwellplates to pilot plant operations This comprehensive reference book provides an authoritativesource of information on the pretreatment of cellulosic biomass toaid those experienced in the field to access the most currentinformation on the topic. It will also be invaluable to thoseentering the growing field of biomass conversion.

Pretreatment Techniques For Biofuels And Biorefineries
Author: Zhen Fang
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
Release Date: 2013-01-04
Pages: 457
ISBN:
Available Language: English, Spanish, And French
EBOOK SYNOPSIS:

This book includes 19 chapters contributed by the world's leading experts on pretreatment methods for biomass. It extensively covers the different types of biomass (e.g. molasses, sugar beet pulp, cheese whey, sugarcane residues, palm waste, vegetable oil, straws, stalks and wood), various pretreatment approaches (e.g. physical, thermal, chemical, physicochemical and biological) and methods that show the subsequent production of biofuels and chemicals such as sugars, ethanol, extracellular polysaccharides, biodiesel, gas and oil. In addition to traditional methods such as steam, hot-water, hydrothermal, diluted-acid, organosolv, ozonolysis, sulfite, milling, fungal and bacterial, microwave, ultrasonic, plasma, torrefaction, pelletization, gasification (including biogas) and liquefaction pretreatments, it also introduces and discusses novel techniques such as nano and solid catalysts, organic electrolyte solutions and ionic liquids. This book offers a review of state-of-the-art research and provides guidance for the future paths of developing pretreatment techniques of biomass for biofuels, especially in the fields of biotechnology, microbiology, chemistry, materials science and engineering. It intends to provide a systematic introduction of pretreatment techniques. It is an accessible reference work for students, researchers, academicians and industrialists in biorefineries. Zhen Fang is a Professor of Bioenergy and the leader and founder of the biomass group at the Xishuangbanna Tropical Botanical Garden of the Chinese Academy of Sciences. He is also an adjunct full Professor of Life Sciences at the University of Science and Technology of China.

Biomass Pretreatment And Conversion Processes
Author: Rajeev Kumar
Publisher:
Release Date: 2016-09
Pages: 546
ISBN:
Available Language: English, Spanish, And French
EBOOK SYNOPSIS:

Lignocellulosic biomass conversion to fuel is the only sustainable way to meet the current and future energy demands, at least in displacing a substantial amount of liquid transportation fuel, and curb detrimental effects of greenhouse gas emissions. Various routes and processes to convert lignocellulosic biomass to fuels, chemicals, and bio-based materials have been developed in the last couple of decades. This book contains eleven chapters that intend to provide readers with updates on these various processes and routes to produce fuels and chemicals using lignocellulosic biomass. In addition, it covers the past and current developments on biomass logistics, analytical tools applied to characterise lignocellulosic biomass, environmental aspects and engine performance of various fuels, as well as techno-economical aspects of lignocellulosic biomass refinery. The following list summarises the topics covered in this book: The past and current developments on biomass valorisation in biochemical platforms; Developments in thermochemical conversion of biomass to fuels and chemicals including gasification, pyrolysis, and hydrothermal treatment; Heterogeneous catalysts application in low to high temperature conversion of biomass to fuels and chemicals; Pathways of lignin valorisation to fuels and chemicals; Production methods and the physicochemical properties of nanocelluloses; The environmental impacts and engine performances of various bio-fuels; Biomass logistics and their impact on bioenergy applications; Anaerobic conversion of biomass to biogas and impacts of co-digestion on biogas yields and quality.

Sustainable Degradation Of Lignocellulosic Biomass
Author: Anuj Chandel
Publisher: BoD – Books on Demand
Release Date: 2013-05-15
Pages: 286
ISBN:
Available Language: English, Spanish, And French
EBOOK SYNOPSIS:

This book provides important aspects of sustainable degradation of lignocellulosic biomass which has a pivotal role for the economic production of several value-added products and biofuels with safe environment. Different pretreatment techniques and enzymatic hydrolysis process along with the characterization of cell wall components have been discussed broadly. The following features of this book attribute its distinctiveness: This book comprehensively covers the improvement in methodologies for the biomass pretreatment, hemicellulose and cellulose breakdown into fermentable sugars, the analytical methods for biomass characterization, and bioconversion of cellulosics into biofuels. In addition, mechanistic analysis of biomass pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis have been discussed in details, highlighting key factors influencing these processes at industrial scale.

Biomass For Bioenergy
Author: Abd El-Fatah Abomohra
Publisher: BoD – Books on Demand
Release Date: 2019-12-18
Pages: 208
ISBN:
Available Language: English, Spanish, And French
EBOOK SYNOPSIS:

Lignocellulosic wastes has been widely discussed as a promising natural chemical source and alternative feedstock for second-generation biofuels. However, there are still many technical and economic challenges facing its utilization. Lignin is one of the components of lignocellulosic biomass, and is the most rigid constituent and can be considered as a glue providing the cell wall with stiffness and the plant tissue with compressive strength. In addition, it provides resistance to chemical and physical damage. Resistance of lignocelluloses to hydrolysis is mainly from the protection of cellulose by lignin and cellulose binding to hemicellulose. The present book provides basic knowledge and recent research on different applications of biomass, focusing on the bioenergy and different pretreatment methods that overcome the aforementioned hurdles.

IMPACT OF PRETREATMENT METHODS ON FAST PYROLYSIS OF BIOMASS
Author:
Publisher:
Release Date: 2017
Pages:
ISBN:
Available Language: English, Spanish, And French
EBOOK SYNOPSIS:

Abstract : Biomass is considered a renewable source of energy with minimum carbon foot print if managed sustainably. The majority of the worlds energy is spend on transportation, and fast pyrolysis of biomass could be a potential route for production of a sustainable liquid transportation fuel. However, there are several hurdles in the conversion process. This work addresses these hurdles by investigating the impact of several pretreatment methods on fast pyrolysis including thermal pretreatment (torrefaction), comminution/grinding, mineral reduction. The impact of important parameters like heat transfer medium, conversion temperature and particle size were also investigated. A mild thermal pretreatment of biomass (~10-15% dry solids loss) had been proven to provide multiple benefits which include, reduction of grinding energy (~85% reduction), narrower particle distribution and production of bio-oils that have lower water and acid content, thus increasing stability. Comminution followed by mechanical sifting reduced the insoluble minerals (primarily silicon), which can cause damage to bio-refineries by increasing the equipment wear. More than 80% of the inorganics (both soluble and insoluble) were removed through aqueous high-shear mineral reduction technique when paired with mild thermal pretreatment. Removal of these soluble, structural minerals has decreased the amount of aqueous-fraction bio oils, and produced a higher quality oil. Arundo Donax is a fast growing cane which is considered a low cost energy crop. However, its high mineral content made it less attractive for alternative bio-fuel production. The high potential of the feedstock was the primary reason why this feedstock has been extensively studied in this work, and an effective pretreatment method to enable efficient conversion was sought. It was concluded that the particle size of the feedstock has minimal effect on the bio-oil yield within the studied range (mm), whereas the conversion/reaction temperature had shown predominant effect. The optimal bio-oil yields for raw Arundo Donax were approximately 50-52% observed for feedstock with particle size in range of 0.425-0.850 mm at temperatures of 470-500 °C. The high shear mineral reduction technique with multi stage fast pyrolysis was also investigated with up to approximately 40% dry solids loss in first stage (torrefaction). It was found that the mineral reduction increased the liquid product yield (up to 62%), approaching that of clean woody feedstocks. This work indicated that the liquid yield can be effectively fractionated through sequential degradation stages without losing the product yield. In conclusion, the presented work in this dissertation indicates that integration of pretreatment methods like mineral reduction, comminution and thermal treatments with fast pyrolysis enables the use of low cost biomass feedstocks to be able to produce stable bio-oils with optimal yields. Further, this work demonstrates, in part, that the presented (relatively) simple and low-cost conversion reactor can produce a high yield of liquid pyrolysis oil from a range of woody, herbaceous, and agricultural residues and wastes. Sequential staging of these reactors can produce a thermally fractionated product.

Biomass Preprocessing And Pretreatments For Production Of Biofuels
Author: Jaya Shankar Tumuluru
Publisher: CRC Press
Release Date: 2018-07-26
Pages: 458
ISBN:
Available Language: English, Spanish, And French
EBOOK SYNOPSIS:

Engineering the physical, chemical, and energy properties of lignocellulosic biomass is important to produce high-quality consistent feedstocks with reduced variability for biofuels production. The emphasis of this book will be the beneficial impacts that mechanical, chemical, and thermal preprocessing methods can have on lignocellulosic biomass quality attributes or specifications for solid and liquid biofuels and biopower production technologies. "Preprocessing" refers to treatments that can occur at a distance from conversion and result in an intermediate with added value, with improved conversion performance and efficiency. This book explores the effects of mechanical, chemical, and thermal preprocessing methods on lignocellulosic biomass physical properties and chemical composition and their suitability for biofuels production. For example, biomass mechanical preprocessing methods like size reduction (which impacts the particle size and distribution) and densification (density and size and shape) are important for feedstocks to meet the quality requirements for both biochemical and thermochemical conversion methods like enzymatic conversion, gasification, and pyrolysis process. Thermal preprocessing methods like drying, deep drying, torrefaction, steam explosion, hydrothermal carbonization, and hydrothermal liquefaction effect feedstock's proximate, ultimate and energy property, making biomass suitable for both solid and liquid fuel production. Chemical preprocessing which includes washing, leaching, acid, alkali, and ammonia fiber explosion that can enable biochemical composition, such as modification of lignin and hemicellulose, and impacts the enzymatic conversion application for liquid fuels production. This book also explores the integration of these preprocessing technologies to achieve desired lignocellulosic biomass quality attributes for biofuels production.

The Controlling Factors Involved In Biomass Aqueous Pretreatment
Author: Libing Zhang
Publisher:
Release Date: 2016
Pages: 339
ISBN:
Available Language: English, Spanish, And French
EBOOK SYNOPSIS:

Of all sustainable resources, only lignocellulosic biomass can be transformed into organic fuels and chemicals that can integrate well with our current transportation infrastructure due to the inherent convenience, cost, and efficiency advantages of these organic fuels over current fuels. However, the high cost of biofuel conversion technologies poses challenges in large-scale commercialization. Pretreatment is the most expensive operation unit that is responsible for disrupting the naturally recalcitrant lignocellulosic biomass to provide reactive intermediates for production of renewable biofuels and bioproducts through biochemical or thermochemical processes. A better fundamental understanding of biomass pretreatment is essential to bring biofuels to market.

Pretreatment Of Lignocellulosic Biomass Using Microorganisms  Approaches  Advantages  And Limitations
Author: Thomas Canam
Publisher:
Release Date: 2013
Pages:
ISBN:
Available Language: English, Spanish, And French
EBOOK SYNOPSIS:

Pretreatment of Lignocellulosic Biomass Using Microorganisms: Approaches, Advantages, and Limitations.

Irradiation Pretreatment Of Tropical Biomass And Biofiber For Biofuel Production
Author: Mohd Asyraf Kassim
Publisher:
Release Date: 2016
Pages:
ISBN:
Available Language: English, Spanish, And French
EBOOK SYNOPSIS:

Interest on biofuel production from biomass and biofiber has gain great attention globally because these materials are abundant, inexpensive, renewable, and sustainable. Generally, the conversion of biomass and biofiber to biofuel involves several processes including biomass production, pretreatment, hydrolysis, and fermentation. Selecting the most efficient pretreatment is crucial to ensure the success of biofuel production since pretreatment has been reported to contribute substantial portion on the production cost. The main goal of the pretreatment is to enhance digestibility of the biomass and biofiber, and to increase sugar production prior to fermentation process. To date, several pretreatment methods have been introduced to pretreat biomass and biofiber including irradiation. This book chapter reviews and discusses different leading irradiation pretreatment technologies along with their mechanism involved during pretreatment of various tropical biomass and biofiber. This chapter also reviews the effect of irradiation pretreatment on the biomass and biofiber component, which could assist the enzymatic saccharification process.

Complex Effect Of Lignocellulosic Biomass Pretreatment With 1 Butyl 3 Methylimidazolium Chloride Ionic Liquid On Various Aspects Of Ethanol And Fumaric Acid Production By Immobilized Cells Within SSF
Author:
Publisher:
Release Date: 2018
Pages:
ISBN:
Available Language: English, Spanish, And French
EBOOK SYNOPSIS:

Highlights: Pretreatment with [Bmim]Cl ionic liquid affects bioprocessing of lignocellulose. The pretreatment boosted both enzymatic hydrolysis and microbial transformation. Traces of [Bmim]Cl inhibited the enzyme activity and microbial productivity. Both yeasts and fungi provided improved transformation of the pretreated biomass. Abstract: The pretreatment of softwood and hardwood samples (spruce and hornbeam wood) with 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([Bmim]Cl) was undertaken for further simultaneous enzymatic saccharification of renewable non-food lignocellulosic biomass and microbial fermentation of obtained sugars to ethanol and fumaric acid. A multienzyme cocktail based on cellulases and yeast or fungus cells producing ethanol and fumaric acid were the main objects of [Bmim]Cl influence studies. A complex effect of lignocellulosic biomass pretreatment with [Bmim]Cl on various aspects of the process (both action of cellulases and microbial conversion of hydrolysates to target products) was revealed. Positive effects of the pretreatment with [Bmim]Cl included decreasing the lignin content in the biomass, and increasing the effectiveness of enzymatic hydrolysis and microbial transformation of pretreated biomass. Immobilized cells of both yeasts and fungi possessed improved productive characteristics in the biotransformation of biomass pretreated with [Bmim]Cl to ethanol and fumaric acid.

Literature Review Of Physical And Chemical Pretreatment Processes For Lignocellulosic Biomass
Author: Paulien Harmsen
Publisher:
Release Date: 2010
Pages: 54
ISBN:
Available Language: English, Spanish, And French
EBOOK SYNOPSIS:

Hydrothermal Processing In Biorefineries
Author: Héctor A. Ruiz
Publisher: Springer
Release Date: 2017-06-11
Pages: 511
ISBN:
Available Language: English, Spanish, And French
EBOOK SYNOPSIS:

The biorefinery, integration of processes and technologies for biomass conversion, demands efficient utilization of all components. Hydrothermal processing is a potential clean technology to convert raw materials such as lignocellulosic and aquatic biomass into bioenergy and high added-value compounds. This book aims to show fundamental concepts and key technological developments that enabled industrial application of hydrothermal processing. The scope of this book is primarily for scientists working in the biorefinery field as well as engineers from industry and potential investors in biofuels. Therefore, the information in this book will provide an overview of this technology applied to lignocellulosic materials and aquatic biomass, and especially new knowledge. Critically, this book brings together experts in the application of hydrothermal processes on lignocellulosic and aquatic biomass.

Pretreatment Of Lignocellulosic Biomass Using Room Temperature Ionic Liquids  RTILs
Author: Thomas Vincent Doherty
Publisher:
Release Date: 2010
Pages: 270
ISBN:
Available Language: English, Spanish, And French
EBOOK SYNOPSIS:

Combined Microwave Acid Pretreatment Of The Biomass
Author: Ionel Balcu
Publisher:
Release Date: 2011
Pages:
ISBN:
Available Language: English, Spanish, And French
EBOOK SYNOPSIS:

Combined Microwave-Acid Pretreatment of the Biomass.

Understanding Synergies Between Pretreatment  Feedstock  And Consolidated Bioprocessing For Lignocellulosic Biomass Conversion
Author: Vanessa Ann Thomas
Publisher:
Release Date: 2016
Pages: 200
ISBN:
Available Language: English, Spanish, And French
EBOOK SYNOPSIS:

Renewable fuels are essential to environmental sustainability, economic competitiveness, air and water quality, and national energy security for a transportation sector that is almost totally dependent on petroleum. Cellulosic biomass is the only natural resource from which liquid organic fuels can be made sustainably on a large scale due to its abundance, widespread geographic availability, and low cost. In order to reduce the capital and operating costs of cellulosic biorefineries, consolidated bioprocessing (CBP) has been identified as a powerful biotechnology platform that combines enzyme production, saccharification, and fermentation, into a single unit operation using microorganisms capable of enzyme production and sugar-to-fuel fermentation. Although much research has been devoted to obtaining microorganisms able to achieve high sugar conversion, conservation of the available sugars proves to be an equal challenge in light of the preceding pretreatment step where the greatest sugar losses may occur. However, research devoted to the study of pretreatment with organism-free enzyme systems may not be applicable to CBP as organism-mediated hydrolysis operates by a different mechanism than free enzyme cocktails. Thus, studies which combine real biomass, pretreatment, and CBP are vital to establishing commercially successful bioconversion systems. In order to determine synergies between pretreatment, feedstock, and CBP, various studies were expounded through a diversity of feedstocks, pretreatment methods, and biocatalysts. These studies included: (1) sugar release optimization for C. thermocellum CBP and free, fungal enzymes across hydrothermal pretreatment severity for Populus, (2) characterization of Populus natural variants by comparing biological catalysts while applying a suite of characterization techniques to the biomass, and (3) evaluation of a newly developed pretreatment method, co-solvent enhanced lignocellulosic fractionation (CELF), through comparison with dilute sulfuric acid pretreatment across multiple feedstocks and biological catalysts while aligning our results with insights from ultrastructure characterization. Contrasting sugar release from pretreated biomass by C. thermocellum CBP and fungal enzymes was used as a means of evaluating synergy resulting in reduced recalcitrance while biomass characterization informed of structural properties potentially indicative of low recalcitrance. By considering real biomass under industrially relevant process scenarios, we develop fundamental knowledge towards the design of superior bioconversion systems and improved sugar yields.