Peter Adamson presents the first full history of philosophy in the Islamic world for a broad readership. He traces its development from early Islam to the 20th century, ranging from Spain to South Asia, featuring Jewish and Christian thinkers as well as Muslim. Major figures like Avicenna, Averroes, and Maimonides are covered in great detail, but the book also looks at less familiar thinkers, including women philosophers. Attention is also given to thephilosophical relevance of Islamic theology (kalam) and mysticism--the Sufi tradition within Islam, and Kabbalah among Jews--and to science, with chapters on disciplines like optics and astronomy. The first partof the book looks at the blossoming of Islamic theology and responses to the Greek philosophical tradition in the world of Arabic learning, the second discusses philosophy in Muslim Spain (Andalusia), and a third section looks in unusual detail at later developments, touching on philosophy in the Ottoman, Mughal, and Safavid empires.
philosophy in the islamic world
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In the history of philosophy, few topics are so relevant to today's cultural and political landscape as philosophy in the Islamic world. Yet, this remains one of the lesser-known philosophical traditions. In this Very Short Introduction, Peter Adamson explores the history of philosophy among Muslims, Jews, and Christians living in Islamic lands, from its historical background to thinkers in the twentieth century. Introducing the main philosophical themes of the Islamic world, Adamson integrates ideas from the Islamic and Abrahamic faiths to consider the broad philosophical questions that continue to invite debate: What is the relationship between reason and religious belief? What is the possibility of proving God's existence? What is the nature of knowledge? Drawing on the most recent research in the field, this book challenges the assumption of the cultural decline of philosophy and science in the Islamic world by demonstrating its rich heritage and overlap with other faiths and philosophies. ABOUT THE SERIES: The Very Short Introductions series from Oxford University Press contains hundreds of titles in almost every subject area. These pocket-sized books are the perfect way to get ahead in a new subject quickly. Our expert authors combine facts, analysis, perspective, new ideas, and enthusiasm to make interesting and challenging topics highly readable.
In the history of philosophy, few topics are so relevant to today's cultural and political landscape as philosophy in the Islamic world. Yet, this remains one of the lesser-known philosophical traditions. In this Very Short Introduction, Peter Adamson explores the history of philosophy among Muslims, Jews, and Christians living in Islamic lands, from its historical background to thinkers in the twentieth century. Introducing the main philosophical themes of the Islamic world, Adamson integrates ideas from the Islamic and Abrahamic faiths to consider the broad philosophical questions that continue to invite debate: What is the relationship between reason and religious belief? What is the possibility of proving God's existence? What is the nature of knowledge? Drawing on the most recent research in the field, this book challenges the assumption of the cultural decline of philosophy and science in the Islamic world by demonstrating its rich heritage and overlap with other faiths and philosophies.
The basis of Muslim philosophy and science is the instruction buried in the Quran. At an early date this tradition was enlarged and strengthened by the infiltration into Muslim culture of Greek philosophy and science through the translation of Greek classics by Muslims. The Indian tradition of thought also made its contribution to this intellectual leaven. This book traces the development and interaction of these strands in Muslim thinking. The author is concerned to show both how philosophy and science are related to specifically religious thought, and how they have made distinctive contributions to method and discovery. The impact of secularisation on the Muslim world puts these traditions under considerable strain, and it is interesting to define how far this pressure is a productive and fertile one. The current century has seen a Renaissance of Muslim science and philosophy; this book sets the new achievements clearly against their historical background. First published in 1988.
This book brings together the study of two great disciplines of the Islamic world: law and philosophy. In both sunni and shiite Islam, it became the norm for scholars to acquire a high level of expertise in the legal tradition. Thus some of the greatest names in the history of Aristotelianism were trained jurists, like Averroes, or commented on the status and nature of law, like al-Fārābī. While such authors sought to put law in its place relative to the philosophical disciplines, others criticized philosophy from a legal viewpoint, like al-Ghazālī and Ibn Taymiyya. But this collection of papers does not only explore the relative standing of law and philosophy. It also looks at how philosophers, theologians, and jurists answered philosophical questions that arise from jurisprudence itself. What is the logical structure of a well-formed legal argument? What standard of certainty needs to be attained in passing down judgments, and how is that standard reached? What are the sources of valid legal judgment and what makes these sources authoritative? May a believer be excused on grounds of ignorance? Together the contributions provide an unprecedented demonstration of the close connections between philosophy and law in Islamic society, while also highlighting the philosophical interest of texts normally studied only by legal historians.
Islamic Philosophy has often been treated as mainly of historical interest, belonging to the history of ideas rather than to philosophy. This is volume challenges this belief. The Routledge History of Philosophy is made up entirely of essays by a distinguished list of writers. They provide detailed discussions of the most important thinkers and the key concepts in Islamic philosophy, from earliest times to the present day.
Philosophy in the Islamic World Online: 8th - 10th Centuries is a comprehensive and unprecedented reference work devoted to the history of philosophy in the realms of Islam in its formative period: from its beginnings in the eighth century up to the tenth century AD. Both major and minor figures are covered, giving details of biography and doctrine, as well as detailed lists and summaries of each author's works. It covers the period when philosophy began to blossom thanks to the translation of Greek scientific works into Arabic and the emergence of autochthonous intellectual traditions within Islam. Philosophy in the Islamic World Online: 8th - 10th Centuries is of unparalleled significance to anyone doing serious research on philosophy in the Islamic world: a unique source for both for specialists and graduate students.
The Oxford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Science, and Technology in Islam provides both an overview and a comprehensive and detailed survey of the main features of philosophy, science, medicine and technology in the Muslim world. The level of entries are scholarly, based on primary and secondary sources, and aimed at advanced students of Islamic philosophy and science. The selection of entries as well as their content reflect the highest academic standards and most recent research in the field, providing scholars and advanced students with in-depth surveys on the most important issues in the study of these topics, serving as the authoritative reference work on this important area of research.
The volume contains 26 contributions to literature, philosophy, linguistics and epigraphy in Islamic culture, ranging from pre-Islamic poetry to contemporary prose, from the Ihwan as-Safa to the theology of Mawdudi, from lexicography to epigraphy. These papers were read at the Eighteenth International Congress of the Union Europeenne des Arabisants et Islamisants, organized by the Catholic University of Leuven (KUL) from 3 to 10 September 1996. A second volume of proceedings, that appears along with this one (OLA 86), is more concerned with questions of actuality and political organisation, including Christian minorities in the Arab world, in their relation to the Muslim environment. As such the two volumes put together, will provide to the world of learning, we may say, an overall picture of the current scientific investigations about Islamic culture and society.