In these letters and essays, the founders of Marxism discuss the origins and essence of religion and offer a thought-provoking introduction to the theoretical basis of proletarian atheism.
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This thought-provoking book explores the very roots of religious thinking. Draws on contemporary images of religion as well as providing fascinating insights into religious fundamentalism.
Schleiermacher's On Religion: Speeches to its Cultured Despisers is a classic of modern Protestant religious thought that powerfully displays the tensions between the Romantic and Enlightenment accounts of religion. This edition presents the original 1799 text in English for the first time. Richard Crouter's introduction places the work in the milieu of early German Romanticism, Kant criticism, the revival of Spinoza and Plato studies, and theories of literary criticism and of the physical sciences. This fully annotated edition also contains a chronology and notes on further reading.
Religious suffering is at one and the same time the expression of real suffering and a protest against real suffering. Religion is the sigh of the oppressed creature, the heart of a heartless world and the soul of soulless conditions.Few people would ever expect that Karl Marx is the writer of the above statement. He not only wrote it, but he did so in the same breath of his more famous dictum that religion is the opiate of the masses. How can one reconcile such different perspectives on the power and ubiquity of religion?In this compact reader of Marx's essential thought on religion, John Raines offers the full range of Marx's thoughts on religion and its relationship to the world of social relations. Through a careful selection of essays, articles, pamphlets, and letters, Raines shows that Marx had a far more complex understanding of religious belief. Equally important is how Marx's ideas on religion were intimately tied to his inquiries into political economy, revolution, social change, and the philosophical questions of the self.Raines offers an introduction that shows the continuing importance of the Marxist perspective on religion and its implications for the way religion continues to act in and respond to the momentous changes going on in our social and environmental worlds. Marx on Religion also includes a study guide to help professors and students—as well as the general reader—continue to understand the significance of this often under-examined component of Marx.
John Locke: Writings on Religion brings together for the first time a broad selection of John Locke's writings on religion and theology, some of which have never been published before. Locke was a founder and shaper of modern thought and society, and his principal works are among the most influential ever written. Much that he wrote is either about religion or touches on it, which is not surprising, for he lived and worked during a time of heightened religious sensibility. Subjects thattoday would be considered to have little or no bearing on religion were viewed by him and his contemporaries within a theological frame: the nature of knowledge and belief, the origin of ideas, the nature of language, metaphysical questions concerning substance, personal identity, the relation of mind and body, the foundation of morality, the origin of civil society, toleration. A right understanding of Locke requires that all of his opinions be viewed within this religious frame. Read together, and in context, these writings illustrate the deep and pervasive religious motivation in Locke's thought. They are key texts in intellectual history.
Provides a comprehensive account of the socio-political role Aristotle attributes to traditional religion, despite rejecting its content.
In these three essays, "Nature, " "The Utility of Religion, " and "Theism, " published between 1850 and 1870, English social and political philosopher John Stuart Mill (1806-1873) gives his most sustained analysis of religious belief. Though not prepared to abandon the idea of an overall design in nature, Mill nonetheless argues that its violence and capriciousness militate against moral ends in nature's workings. Moreover, any designer of such a world as we experience it cannot be all powerful and all good for nature is "too clumsily made and capriciously governed." However, since humankind, by and large, cannot, it seems, be deprived of religion, Mill espouses what he calls a "religion of humanity, " whose concepts of justice, morality, and altruism are based on classical models and on the New Testament Sermon on the Mount rather than on the vindictive God of the Old Testament and the world-hating doctrines of St. Paul.
The authors have been asked to present their ideas of what a secular study of religion should be like, what methods it should apply, what aims, and what kind of scientific thinking to pursue. The result is a broad pattern of approaches, some wholly theoretical, some also based on case studies. All in all, the texts offer a comprehensive account of modern scholarly positions and summarizes much of the ongoing theoretical debate and the effort to further emancipate the study of religion from theological biases.
Companion to Law and religion in post-communist Europe.