mid infrared optoelectronics

Mid Infrared Optoelectronics
Author: Eric Tournié
Publisher: Woodhead Publishing
Release Date: 2019-10-19
Pages: 750
ISBN:
Available Language: English, Spanish, And French
EBOOK SYNOPSIS:

Mid-infrared Optoelectronics: Materials, Devices, and Applications addresses the new materials, devices and applications that have emerged over the last decade, along with exciting areas of research. Sections cover fundamentals, light sources, photodetectors, new approaches, and the application of mid-IR devices, with sections discussing LEDs, laser diodes, and quantum cascade lasers, mid-infrared optoelectronics, emerging research areas, dilute bismide and nitride alloys, Group-IV materials, gallium nitride heterostructures, and new nonlinear materials. Finally, the most relevant applications of mid-infrared devices are reviewed in industry, gas sensing, spectroscopy, and imaging. This book presents a key reference for materials scientists, engineers and professionals working in R&D in the area of semiconductors and optoelectronics. Provides a comprehensive overview of mid-infrared photodetectors and light sources and the latest materials and devices Reviews emerging areas of research in the field of mid-infrared optoelectronics, including new materials, such as wide bandgap materials, chalcogenides and new approaches, like heterogeneous integration Includes information on the most relevant applications in industry, like gas sensing, spectroscopy and imaging

Mid Infrared Semiconductor Optoelectronics
Author: Anthony Krier
Publisher: Springer
Release Date: 2007-05-22
Pages: 752
ISBN:
Available Language: English, Spanish, And French
EBOOK SYNOPSIS:

Optoelectronic devices operating in the mid-infrared wavelength range offer applications in a variety of areas from environmental gas monitoring around oil rigs to the detection of narcotics. They could also be used for free-space optical communications, thermal imaging applications and the development of "homeland security" measures. Mid-infrared Semiconductor Optoelectronics is an overview of the current status and technological development in this rapidly emerging area; the basic physics, some of the problems facing the design engineer and a comparison of possible solutions are laid out; the different lasers used as sources for mid-infrared technology are considered; recent work in detectors is reviewed; the last part of the book is concerned with applications. With a world-wide authorship of experts working in many mid-infrared-related fields this book will be an invaluable reference for researchers and graduate students drawn from physics, electronic and electrical engineering and materials science.

GaInAsSbP Alloys For Mid Infrared Optoelectronic Devices
Author: Kieran James Cheetham
Publisher:
Release Date: 2011
Pages:
ISBN:
Available Language: English, Spanish, And French
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Growth And Characterisation Of Pentanary GaInAsSbP Alloys For Mid Infrared Optoelectronics
Author: Neil B. Cook
Publisher:
Release Date: 2009
Pages:
ISBN:
Available Language: English, Spanish, And French
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Graphene Optoelectronics From The Visible To The Mid Infrared
Author: Michela Badioli
Publisher:
Release Date: 2016
Pages: 200
ISBN:
Available Language: English, Spanish, And French
EBOOK SYNOPSIS:

Since its discovery in 2004, graphene, a one-atom-thick layer of carbon atoms arranged in a hexagonal lattice, has attracted huge interest from the scientific community due to its extraordinary electronic, mechanical, and optical properties. While most of the earliest studies focused on electronic transport, in recent years the fields of graphene photonics and optoelectronics have thriven. The goal of this thesis is to explore the use of graphene for novel optoelectronic devices, adopting different approaches to enhance the electrically tunable graphene-light interaction in a broad spectral range, from the visible to the mid-infrared. This includes investigating the sub-wavelength interaction and energy transfer between a dipole and a graphene sheet, as well as working on efficient photodetection schemes. Indeed graphene high electronic mobility, broadband absorption, flexibility and tunable optoelectronic properties (described in Chapter 1) make it extremely appealing for the development of optoelectronic applications with new functionalities. Concerning the devices, the starting point of the experiments presented in the thesis are graphene field effect transistors of different geometries, whose fabrication and characterization techniques are described in Chapter 2. The tunability of the optoelectronic properties via control over the Fermi energy is an essential feature of the fabricated devices. The change in the Fermi level is achieved applying a voltage to a back-gate or a polymer electrolyte top-gate. We address both aspects at the core of optoelectronics, i.e. the control of optical properties with electric fields and the modification of electrical quantities, such as current, with light. Therefore the first part of the thesis (comprising Chapter 3, 4 and 5) is devoted to graphene nanophotonics and plasmonics, while the second part deals with graphene-based photodetection (Chapter 6, 7, 8 and 9). In Chapter 3, the main concepts at the basis of graphene nanophotonics are presented, such as the electrical tunability and the strong field confinement of the 2D plasmons, as well as the coupling of an optical emitter to graphene plasmons or electron-hole pair excitations. Then we present two experiments showing the control of light by means of static electric fields. In Chapter 4 we show the electrical control of the relaxation pathways of erbium ions in close proximity to a graphene sheet: the energy flow from the emitters is tuned to electron-hole pairs in graphene, to free space photons and to plasmons by changing the graphene Fermi level. In Chapter 5 we present the real-space imaging and tuning of highly confined graphene plasmons in the mid-infrared, launched by the dipole of a metallized s-SNOM tip (Chapter 5). In this case modifying the graphene Fermi level leads to a change in the plasmon wavelength. In Chapter 6 we review existing schemes for graphene photodetectors and the main mechanisms enabling photodetection with graphene, with particular emphasis toward the photothermoelectric effect. Then we present three cases where graphene photoresponse is enhanced exploiting the interaction with surrounding materials. A hybrid graphene-quantum dot photodetector in the visible and near-infrared is reported in Chapter 7: a photogating effect after light absorption in the quantum dots leads to extremely high responsivities (over one million A/W). In Chapter 8 we demonstrate how the excitation of bulk phonons of a polar substrate enhances the mid-infrared photocurrent via a photothermoelectric effect. Also substrate surface phonons, launched by illuminating a metal edge with light polarized perpendicularly to it, lead to an increase in the photoresponse, as described in Chapter 9. The results presented in this thesis open new avenues in the field of graphene-based optoelectronics for active nano-photonics and sensing.

Nonlinear Photonics In Mid Infrared Quantum Cascade Lasers
Author: Louise Jumpertz
Publisher: Springer
Release Date: 2017-08-31
Pages: 134
ISBN:
Available Language: English, Spanish, And French
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This thesis presents the first comprehensive analysis of quantum cascade laser nonlinear dynamics and includes the first observation of a temporal chaotic behavior in quantum cascade lasers. It also provides the first analysis of optical instabilities in the mid-infrared range. Mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers are unipolar semiconductor lasers, which have become widely used in applications such as gas spectroscopy, free-space communications or optical countermeasures. Applying external perturbations such as optical feedback or optical injection leads to a strong modification of the quantum cascade laser properties. Optical feedback impacts the static properties of mid-infrared Fabry–Perot and distributed feedback quantum cascade lasers, inducing power increase; threshold reduction; modification of the optical spectrum, which can become either single- or multimode; and enhanced beam quality in broad-area transverse multimode lasers. It also leads to a different dynamical behavior, and a quantum cascade laser subject to optical feedback can oscillate periodically or even become chaotic. A quantum cascade laser under external control could therefore be a source with enhanced properties for the usual mid-infrared applications, but could also address new applications such as tunable photonic oscillators, extreme events generators, chaotic Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR), chaos-based secured communications or unpredictable countermeasures.

New Enhanced Sensitivity Infrared Laser Spectroscopy Techniques Applied To Reactive Plasmas And Trace Gas Detection
Author: Stefan Welzel
Publisher: Logos Verlag Berlin GmbH
Release Date: 2009
Pages: 197
ISBN:
Available Language: English, Spanish, And French
EBOOK SYNOPSIS:

Infrared laser absorption spectroscopy (IRLAS) employing both tuneable diode and quantum cascade lasers (TDLs, QCLs) has been applied with both high sensitivity and high time resolution to plasma diagnostics and trace gas measurements. TDLAS combined with a conventional White type multiple pass cell was used to detect up to 13 constituent molecular species in low pressure Ar/H2/N2/O2 and Ar/CH4/N2/O2 microwave discharges, among them the main products such as H2O, NH3, NO and CO, HCN respectively. The hydroxyl radical has been measured in the mid infrared (MIR) spectral range in-situ in both plasmas yielding number densities of between 1011 ... 1012 cm-3. Strong indications of surface dominated formation of either NH3 or N2O and NO were found in the H2-N2-O2 system. In methane containing plasmas a transition between deposition and etching conditions and generally an incomplete oxidation of the precursor were observed. The application of QCLs for IRLAS under low pressure conditions employing the most common tuning approaches has been investigated in detail. A new method of analysing absorption features quantitatively when the rapid passage effect is present is proposed. If power saturation is negligible, integrating the undisturbed half of the line profile yields accurate number densities without calibrating the system. By means of a time resolved analysis of individual chirped QCL pulses the main reasons for increased effective laser line widths could be identified. Apart from the well-known frequency down chirp non-linear absorption phenomena and bandwidth limitations of the detection system may significantly degrade the performance and accuracy of inter pulse spectrometers. The minimum analogue bandwidth of the entire system should normally not fall below 250 MHz. QCLAS using pulsed lasers has been used for highly time resolved measurements in reactive plasmas for the first time enabling a time resolution down to about 100 ns to be achieved. A temperature increase of typically less than 50 K has been established for pulsed DC discharges containing Ar/N2 and traces of NO. The main NO production and depletion reactions have been identified from a comparison of model calculations and time resolved measurements in plasma pulses of up to 100 ms. Considerable NO struction is observed after 5 ... 10 ms due to the impact of N atoms. Finally, thermoelectrically cooled pulsed and continuous wave (cw) QCLs have been employed for high finesse cavity absorption spectroscopy in the MIR. Cavity ring down spectroscopy (CRDS) has been performed with pulsed QCLs and was found to be limited by the intrinsic frequency chirp of the laser suppressing an efficient intensity build-up inside the cavity. Consequently the accuracy and advantage of an absolute internal absorption calibration is not achievable. A room temperature cw QCL was used in a complementary cavity enhanced absorption spectroscopy (CEAS) configuration which was equipped with different cavities of up to 1.3 m length. This spectrometer yielded path lengths of up to 4 km and a noise equivalent absorption down to 4 x 10-8 cm-1Hz-1/2. The corresponding molecular concentration detection limit (e.g. for CH4, N2O and C2H2 at 1303 cm-1/7.66 Aem) was generally below 1 x 1010 cm-3 for 1 s integration times and one order of magnitude less for 30 s integration times. The main limiting factor for achieving even higher sensitivity is the residual mode noise of the cavity. Employing a 0.5 m long cavity the achieved sensitivity was good enough for the selective measurement of trace atmospheric constituents at 2.2 mbar.

Bismuth Containing Compounds
Author: Handong Li
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
Release Date: 2013-10-10
Pages: 379
ISBN:
Available Language: English, Spanish, And French
EBOOK SYNOPSIS:

Bismuth-containing compounds comprise a relatively unexplored materials system that is expected to offer many unique and desirable optoelectronic, thermoelectric, and electronic properties for innovative device applications. This book serves as a platform for knowledge sharing and dissemination of the latest advances in novel areas of bismuth-containing compounds for materials and devices, and provides a comprehensive introduction to those new to this growing field. Coverage of bismides includes theoretical considerations, epitaxial growth, characterization, and materials properties (optical, electrical, and structural). In addition to the well-studied area of highly mismatched Bi-alloys, the book covers emerging topics such as topological insulators and ferroelectric materials. Built upon fundamental science, the book is intended to stimulate interest in developing new classes of semiconductor and thermoelectric materials that exploit the properties of Bismuth. Application areas for bismide materials include laser diodes for optical communications, DVD systems, light-emitting diodes, solar cells, transistors, quantum well lasers, and spintronic devices.

Optical Surfaces For Mid Infrared Sensing
Author: Kavitha Kalavoor Gopalan
Publisher:
Release Date: 2018
Pages: 116
ISBN:
Available Language: English, Spanish, And French
EBOOK SYNOPSIS:

The mid-infrared (mid-IR) spectral region, with wavelengths between 3 and 15 μm, is known for a wide range of applications ranging from spectroscopic sensing to thermal imaging. However, despite the strong technological interest, optoelectronic devices in the mid-IR are expensive and often inferior in performance compared to their visible and near-IR counterparts. In this thesis, we combine ultrathin materials, e.g. graphene, and novel substrates to develop optical surfaces for applications in the mid-IR.First, we demonstrate a novel uncooled photodetector, combining graphene with a ferroelectric (pyroelectric) substrate. More specifically, we develop a graphene on z-cut lithium niobate (LiNbO3) pyro-resistive platform that supports dynamic tunablity of the responsivity. We also develop a model to identify the key parameters that influence the performance of such detectors and can therefore provide guidelines to improve their performance. Second, we introduce ultra-thin yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ), a ceramic material, as a novel platform for IR nano-optics. In particular, we combine YSZ substrates with metallic nanostructures and graphene to demonstrate plasmonic, polarizing and transparent heating devices, which enable high temperature processing and can withstand harsh environments thanks to the high thermal and chemical stabilities of YSZ. Additionally, the mechanical flexibility of YSZ substrates also makes them ideally suited for manufacturing foldable or bendable devices and for low cost large-scale roll-to-roll fabrication processes. Finally, we investigate for the first time electrostatically tunable graphene nano-hole array surfaces by performing a detailed experimental study of structures with periods as low as 100 nm. We obtain a clear plasmonic response from these surfaces in the range 1300-1600 cm-1. We also demonstrated for the first time that these tunable nanostructures can be fabricated by scalable nano-imprint technique. Such large area plasmonic nanostructures are suitable for industrial applications, for example, surface-enhanced infrared absorption (SEIRA) sensing. This is because they combine an easy design, extreme field confinement and the possibility to excite multiple plasmon modes for multiband sensing, a feature not readily available in nanoribbons or other localized resonant geometries. The results contained in this thesis are particularly relevant with regard to extending the use of materials, such as graphene combined with specific substrates (LiNbO3 or zirconia), to mid-IR photodetection, enhanced absorption and molecular sensing.

International Conference On Material Science And Material Properties For Infrared Optoelectronics
Author:
Publisher:
Release Date: 2003
Pages:
ISBN:
Available Language: English, Spanish, And French
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Material Science And Material Properties For Infrared Optoelectronics
Author: Fedor Fedorovich Sizov
Publisher: SPIE-International Society for Optical Engineering
Release Date: 1997
Pages: 413
ISBN:
Available Language: English, Spanish, And French
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Physics And Simulation Of Optoelectronic Devices
Author:
Publisher:
Release Date: 2007
Pages:
ISBN:
Available Language: English, Spanish, And French
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Narrow Gap Semiconductors 2007
Author: Ben Murdin
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
Release Date: 2008-11-30
Pages: 216
ISBN:
Available Language: English, Spanish, And French
EBOOK SYNOPSIS:

Narrow gap semiconductors have provided an exciting field of research and show a number of extreme physical and material characteristics. They are the established material systems for infrared detectors and emitters, and with new developments in the technology these materials are emerging as a viable route to high speed, low power electronics. New kinds of narrow gap semiconductor, such as graphene and other composite nanocrystals, are also providing renewed interest in the underlying physics. The Thirteenth International Conference on Narrow Gap Semiconductors (NGS-13) was held at the University of Surrey, Guildford, UK in July 2007. The conference brought together experts and young scientists to discuss the latest findings and developments in the field. This book contains the invited and contributed papers which were presented at this meeting and serves to provide a broad overview of the current worldwide activities in narrow gap semiconductor research. The subjects covered are theoretical and material physics of narrow gap semiconductors and quantum heterostructures, spin related phenomenon including carrier dynamics and magnetotransport, carbon nanotubes and graphene as novel narrow gap material, as well as device physics including transistors, mid and far-infrared lasers and detectors.

Nano Optoelectronics
Author: Marius Grundmann
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
Release Date: 2002-07-03
Pages: 442
ISBN:
Available Language: English, Spanish, And French
EBOOK SYNOPSIS:

Traces the quest to use nanostructured media for novel and improved optoelectronic devices. Leading experts - among them Nobel laureate Zhores Alferov - write here about the fundamental concepts behind nano-optoelectronics, the material basis, physical phenomena, device physics and systems.

Expanding The Optical Capabilities Of Germanium In The Infrared Range Through Group IV And III V IV Alloy Systems
Author: Patrick Michael Wallace
Publisher:
Release Date: 2018
Pages: 176
ISBN:
Available Language: English, Spanish, And French
EBOOK SYNOPSIS:

The work described in this thesis explores the synthesis of new semiconductors in the Si-Ge-Sn system for application in Si-photonics. Direct gap Ge1-ySny (y=0.12-0.16) alloys with enhanced light emission and absorption are pursued. Monocrystalline layers are grown on Si platforms via epitaxy-driven reactions between Sn- and Ge-hydrides using compositionally graded buffer layers that mitigate lattice mismatch between the epilayer and Si platforms. Prototype p-i-n structures are fabricated and are found to exhibit direct gap electroluminescence and tunable absorption edges between 2200 and 2700 nm indicating applications in LEDs and detectors. Additionally, a low pressure technique is described producing pseudomorphic Ge1-ySny alloys in the compositional range y=0.06-0.17. Synthesis of these materials is achieved at ultra-low temperatures resulting in nearly defect-free films that far exceed the critical thicknesses predicted by thermodynamic considerations, and provide a chemically driven route toward materials with properties typically associated with molecular beam epitaxy. Silicon incorporation into Ge1-ySny yields a new class of Ge1-x-ySixSny (y>x) ternary alloys using reactions between Ge3H8, Si4H10, and SnD4. These materials contain small amounts of Si (x=0.05-0.08) and Sn contents of y=0.1-0.15. Photoluminescence studies indicate an intensity enhancement relative to materials with lower Sn contents (y=0.05-0.09). These materials may serve as thermally robust alternatives to Ge1-ySny for mid-infrared (IR) optoelectronic applications. An extension of the above work is the discovery of a new class of Ge-like Group III-V-IV hybrids with compositions Ga(As1–xPx)Ge3 (x=0.01-0.90) and (GaP)yGe5–2y related to Ge1-x-ySixSny in structure and properties. These materials are prepared by chemical vapor deposition of reactive Ga-hydrides with P(GeH3)3 and As(GeH3)3 custom precursors as the sources of P, As, and Ge incorporating isolated GaAs and GaP donor-acceptor pairs into diamond-like Ge-based structures. Photoluminescence studies reveal bandgaps in the near-IR and large bowing of the optical behavior relative to linear interpolation of the III-V and Ge end members. Similar materials in the Al-Sb-B-P system are also prepared and characterized. The common theme of the above topics is the design and fabrication of new optoelectronic materials that can be fully compatible with Si-based technologies for expanding the optoelectronic capabilities of Ge into the mid-IR and beyond through compositional tuning of the diamond lattice.

Functional Nanomaterials For Optoelectronics And Other Applications
Author: Witold Łojkowski
Publisher: Scitec Publications
Release Date: 2004
Pages: 299
ISBN:
Available Language: English, Spanish, And French
EBOOK SYNOPSIS:

Research and development in the field of nanomaterials - thin films, nanowires, nanocrystals and nanostructured bulk materials - has increased very rapidly during recent years. Especially significant has been research in which the structure is closely controlled at the nanometer level in order to achieve the desired functional properties.

Optoelectronics And Optical Communication
Author: Arijit Saha
Publisher: Laxmi Publications
Release Date: 2011-06-01
Pages: 549
ISBN:
Available Language: English, Spanish, And French
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Electronic States And Optical Transitions In Semiconductor Heterostructures
Author: Fedor T. Vasko
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
Release Date: 1998-12-07
Pages: 401
ISBN:
Available Language: English, Spanish, And French
EBOOK SYNOPSIS:

The theoretical basis and the relevant experimental knowledge underlying our present understanding of the electrical and optical properties of semiconductor heterostructures. Although such structures have been known since the 1940s, it was only in the 1980s that they moved to the forefront of research. The resulting structures have remarkable properties not shared by bulk materials. The text begins with a description of the electronic properties of various types of heterostructures, including discussions of complex band-structure effects, localised states, tunnelling phenomena, and excitonic states. The focus of the remainder of the book is on optical properties, including intraband absorption, luminescence and recombination, Raman scattering, subband optical transitions, nonlinear effects, and ultrafast optical phenomena. The concluding chapter presents an overview of some of the applications that make use of the physics discussed. Appendices provide background information on band structure theory, kinetic theory, electromagnetic modes, and Coulomb effects.

Molecular Beam Epitaxy
Author: Mohamed Henini
Publisher: Newnes
Release Date: 2012-12-31
Pages: 744
ISBN:
Available Language: English, Spanish, And French
EBOOK SYNOPSIS:

This multi-contributor handbook discusses Molecular Beam Epitaxy (MBE), an epitaxial deposition technique which involves laying down layers of materials with atomic thicknesses on to substrates. It summarizes MBE research and application in epitaxial growth with close discussion and a ‘how to’ on processing molecular or atomic beams that occur on a surface of a heated crystalline substrate in a vacuum. MBE has expanded in importance over the past thirty years (in terms of unique authors, papers and conferences) from a pure research domain into commercial applications (prototype device structures and more at the advanced research stage). MBE is important because it enables new device phenomena and facilitates the production of multiple layered structures with extremely fine dimensional and compositional control. The techniques can be deployed wherever precise thin-film devices with enhanced and unique properties for computing, optics or photonics are required. This book covers the advances made by MBE both in research and mass production of electronic and optoelectronic devices. It includes new semiconductor materials, new device structures which are commercially available, and many more which are at the advanced research stage. Condenses fundamental science of MBE into a modern reference, speeding up literature review Discusses new materials, novel applications and new device structures, grounding current commercial applications with modern understanding in industry and research Coverage of MBE as mass production epitaxial technology enhances processing efficiency and throughput for semiconductor industry and nanostructured semiconductor materials research community

Progress In Compound Semiconductor Materials III  Electronic And Optoelectronic Applications
Author: Materials Research Society. Meeting
Publisher:
Release Date: 2004
Pages: 398
ISBN:
Available Language: English, Spanish, And French
EBOOK SYNOPSIS:

Recent developments in semiconductor materials and quantum structures are leading to significant advances in optoelectronic devices such as mid-infrared lasers and light-emitting diodes; long-wavelength detectors and solar cells; and modulators and optical switches. Brought to maturity, such devices would likely see widespread use in applications as diverse as infrared imaging, chemical and biological sensing, surveillance, short-links, space-based applications, solar cells, high-bandwidth communications, and many others. This volume highlights the progress in both naturally-and artificially-structured "wave-function-engineered" semiconductors, focusing on epitaxial compound-semiconductor compounds and alloys. The relationships among electronic, optical, and transport properties are emphasized, as are the implications for design and performance. Materials of particular interest include the familiar III-V compounds and alloys; newer offspring of these, such as the dilute-nitride III-Vs; ZnO and II-IV semiconductors; and spintronic materials. Exploratory studies of less commonly studied materials which may be of increasing future interest are also featured. Topics include: low-bandgap and dilute-nitride semiconductors; growth, structure and defects; emitters, detectors and solar cells; devices; zinc oxide; spintronics and quantum structures; quantum dots and wires-structure, spectroscopy and transport; and quantum dots and wires-devices.