handbook of ferroalloys

Handbook Of Ferroalloys
Author: Merete Tangstad
Publisher: Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release Date: 2013-05-04
Pages: 536
ISBN:
Available Language: English, Spanish, And French
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This chapter examines the theory and technology of the production of silicon and ferrosilicon alloys. An overview of silica raw materials, silica transformations, and carbon reductants for smelting is presented together with an exploration of the thermodynamics of silicon reduction and the formation of silicon carbide. For industrial practice, the results of furnace operation and zones formation are discussed, along with the main parameters required to ensure a smooth furnace operation. Finally, post–tap hole processes (refining and casting) and environmental issues (fumes and dust formation and handling) are described.

Handbook Of Ferroalloys
Author: Lauri Holappa
Publisher: Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release Date: 2013-05-04
Pages: 536
ISBN:
Available Language: English, Spanish, And French
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The word ferroalloy refers to an alloy of iron containing a significant proportion of one or more other elements like silicon, manganese, chromium, aluminum, or titanium. The main applications of ferroalloys occur in the steelmaking process. They are added to steel to improve properties like strength, ductility, and fatigue or corrosion resistance. Additionally, ferroalloys can have several other tasks, such as in refining, deoxidation, modification, and control of nonmetallic inclusions and precipitates. The production and role of ferroalloys are briefly introduced, both from a historical perspective and in light of current and future prospects. Examples of production figures, producers, and markets are presented. Recent developments and main drivers in ferroalloys processing, including energy saving, environmental issues, primary and secondary raw materials resources, and development trends in technology, are briefly discussed.

Handbook Of Ferroalloys
Author: Mihail I. Gasik
Publisher: Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release Date: 2013-05-04
Pages: 536
ISBN:
Available Language: English, Spanish, And French
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This chapter deals with alkaline-earth metals (Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba) and their ferroalloys technology. The chapter provides an overview of these metals, their properties, and their reactions with other elements, and it outlines major relevant phase equilibria diagrams. Oxide systems equilibria are also considered. Different raw materials and methods for producing alkaline-earth ferroalloys and master alloys are presented. Specific details of the technology for smelting are described depending on the alloy type and grade. Additionally, the theory and technology used to produce calcium carbide and oxide (metallurgical lime) are described.

Handbook Of Ferroalloys
Author: Heikki Jalkanen
Publisher: Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release Date: 2013-05-04
Pages: 536
ISBN:
Available Language: English, Spanish, And French
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The metallurgical processing of ferroalloys is based on a coherent combination of many scientific fields, which are briefly outlined in this chapter. The metal’s recovery process is based on reduction reactions, where metallurgical thermodynamics and kinetics are of a paramount importance. This includes the knowledge and ability to calculate, monitor, and change the formation of solutions and phases, rate of the reactions, and handling of reaction products in the most efficient way. In parallel, theoretical and engineering data on heat, mass, momentum, and charge transfer are critical for the development and design of ferroalloy production processes and furnaces. The chapter also discusses the basics of the structure and properties of metal and oxide (slag) when melted together with carbon reductants.

Handbook Of Ferroalloys
Author: Michael Gasik
Publisher: Butterworth-Heinemann
Release Date: 2013-05-04
Pages: 536
ISBN:
Available Language: English, Spanish, And French
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This handbook gathers, reviews and concisely presents the core principles and varied technology involved in processing ferroalloys. Background content in thermodynamics, kinetics, heat and mass transfer is accompanied by an overview of electrical furnaces theory and practice as well as sustainability issues. The work includes detailed coverage of the major technologies of ferrosilicon, ferronickel, ferromolybdenum, ferrotungsten, ferrovanadium, ferromanganese and lesser known minor ferroalloys. Distilling the results of many years' experience in ferroalloys, Michael Gasik has assembled contributions from the worlds' foremost experts. The work is therefore a unique source for scientists, engineers and university students, exploring in depth an area which is one of the most versatile and increasingly used fields within modern metallurgy. All-in-one source for the major ferroalloys and their metallurgical processing technologies, cutting research time otherwise spent digging through old handbooks or review articles. In-depth discussion of the C, Si, Al-reduction, groups II-VIII of the periodic table, supporting analysis of metallurgical processing. Contemporary coverage includes environment and energy saving issues.

Handbook Of Ferroalloys
Author: Michael Gasik
Publisher: Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release Date: 2013-05-04
Pages: 536
ISBN:
Available Language: English, Spanish, And French
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This chapter deals with molybdenum and its ferroalloy technology. An overview of molybdenum is presented, its properties are discussed, and its reactions with other elements and compounds are outlined with major relevant phase equilibria diagrams. The raw materials, sources, and methods for preparing and reducing molybdenum are presented. Different technologies for smelting ferromolybdenum alloys are described.

Handbook Of Ferroalloys
Author: Merete Tangstad
Publisher: Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release Date: 2013-05-04
Pages: 536
ISBN:
Available Language: English, Spanish, And French
EBOOK SYNOPSIS:

This chapter examines the theory and technology applied for the production of manganese ferroalloys. The focus is on smelting of ferromanganese, silicomanganese, and manganese metal in electric furnaces with different process types. The properties of manganese as well as its major compounds, minerals, and ores are presented. Agglomeration methods used to prepare ores for smelting are described. Refining techniques for low-carbon manganese ferroalloys are discussed, and postprocessing operations are outlined, together with tapping and casting processes. Additionally, the energy balance of manganese alloys smelting is outlined, and some potential hazards of the smelting technology are discussed, together with their preventive actions.

Handbook Of Ferroalloys
Author: Johan Basson
Publisher: Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release Date: 2013-05-04
Pages: 536
ISBN:
Available Language: English, Spanish, And French
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High carbon ferrochrome is one of the most common ferroalloys produced and is almost exclusively used in the production of stainless steel and high chromium steels. Production takes place primarily in countries with substantial chromite ore supply. Relatively cheap electricity and reductants also contribute to the viability of high carbon ferrochrome. The most common production technology utilized is submerged arc smelting in AC furnaces, although open arc smelting in DC furnaces is becoming increasingly common. A more advanced technology route that includes a prereduction step is only utilized at significant scale by one producer. Production processes have become more energy and metallurgically efficient by utilizing advanced processes such as prereduction, preheating, agglomeration of ore, and CO gas utilization. Recently installed plants display manageable risks in terms of environmental pollution and occupational health.

Handbook Of Ferroalloys
Author: Michael Gasik
Publisher: Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release Date: 2013-05-04
Pages: 536
ISBN:
Available Language: English, Spanish, And French
EBOOK SYNOPSIS:

This chapter deals with zirconium and its ferroalloys technology. An overview of zirconium and of its properties and its reactions with other elements is presented, and major relevant phase equilibria diagrams are given. Zirconium sources (raw materials) and methods for zirconium reduction are discussed. Technologies for smelting ferrosilicozirconium (FeSiZr) and ferro-alumino-zirconium (FeAlZr) alloys are described.

Handbook Of Ferroalloys
Author: Gudrun Saevarsdottir
Publisher: Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release Date: 2013-05-04
Pages: 536
ISBN:
Available Language: English, Spanish, And French
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Almost all ferroalloys are produced by smelting in submerged arc furnaces, powered by either AC or DC sources. To understand the smelting process and furnace operations, it is important to manage the theory of electrical circuits, efficiently apply and control active and reactive parts of the system, optimize the power factor and the operation of the electric arc, and so on. These issues are outlined and discussed in this chapter, which provides necessary theoretical and practical knowledge for those who do not have a background in electrical engineering. They are complemented with discussions of heat balance and electrical control of the smelting furnaces and different emissions associated with the ferroalloys production processes.

Handbook Of Ferroalloys
Author: Oleg Polyakov
Publisher: Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release Date: 2013-05-04
Pages: 536
ISBN:
Available Language: English, Spanish, And French
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This chapter deals with ferronickel technology. Properties of nickel and its reactions with relevant elements are described. The mineral resources of nickel are outlined with emphasis on oxide–silicate (laterite) ores processing. The technology of ferronickel smelting and all steps in the processing chain (roasting, smelting, desulfurization, and oxygen refining in converters) are discussed. Some examples of known industrial ferronickel practice are presented.

Handbook Of Ferroalloys
Author: Oleg Polyakov
Publisher: Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release Date: 2013-05-04
Pages: 536
ISBN:
Available Language: English, Spanish, And French
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This chapter deals with ferroalloys containing rare-earth metals (REM). Among known REM, only three have significant metallurgical relevance (lanthanum, yttrium, and cerium), and they are considered in more detail. This chapter presents an overview of these REM, their properties, and their reactions with other elements and explores major relevant phase equilibria diagrams. REM sources (raw materials) and methods for their reduction are also presented. Technology for smelting of FeSiREM alloys by carbon and aluminum reduction methods is described.

Handbook Of Ferroalloys
Author: Michael M. Gasik
Publisher: Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release Date: 2013-05-04
Pages: 536
ISBN:
Available Language: English, Spanish, And French
EBOOK SYNOPSIS:

This introductory chapter describes the importance of ferroalloys in modern steelmaking and the benefits of applying ferroalloys instead of pure alloying elements. The idea, scope, and structure of the book are outlined.

Handbook Of Extractive Metallurgy
Author: Fathi Habashi
Publisher:
Release Date: 1997
Pages: 8
ISBN:
Available Language: English, Spanish, And French
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Handbook Of Ferroalloys
Author: Mihail I. Gasik
Publisher: Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release Date: 2013-05-04
Pages: 536
ISBN:
Available Language: English, Spanish, And French
EBOOK SYNOPSIS:

This chapter deals with niobium and its ferroalloy technology. An overview of niobium is presented, and its properties and reactions with other elements as well as reactions of Nb2O5 with other oxides are outlined with major relevant phase equilibria diagrams. Niobium sources (raw materials) and methods for niobium oxide reduction are presented. Different technologies for smelting ferroniobium alloys are described.

Handbook Of Extractive Metallurgy  4  Ferroalloy Metals  Alkali Metals  Alkaline Earth Metals  Authors  Name Index  Subject Index
Author: Fathi Habashi
Publisher:
Release Date: 1997
Pages: 2426
ISBN:
Available Language: English, Spanish, And French
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Materials Handbook
Author: François Cardarelli
Publisher: Springer
Release Date: 2018-07-09
Pages: 2254
ISBN:
Available Language: English, Spanish, And French
EBOOK SYNOPSIS:

The unique and practical Materials Handbook (third edition) provides quick and easy access to the physical and chemical properties of very many classes of materials. Its coverage has been expanded to include whole new families of materials such as minor metals, ferroalloys, nuclear materials, food, natural oils, fats, resins, and waxes. Many of the existing families—notably the metals, gases, liquids, minerals, rocks, soils, polymers, and fuels—are broadened and refined with new material and up-to-date information. Several of the larger tables of data are expanded and new ones added. Particular emphasis is placed on the properties of common industrial materials in each class. After a chapter introducing some general properties of materials, each of twenty-four classes of materials receives attention in its own chapter. The health and safety issues connected with the use and handling of industrial materials are included. Detailed appendices provide additional information on subjects as diverse as crystallography, spectroscopy, thermochemical data, analytical chemistry, corrosion resistance, and economic data for industrial and hazardous materials. Specific further reading sections and a general bibliography round out this comprehensive guide. The index and tabular format of the book makes light work of extracting what the reader needs to know from the wealth of factual information within these covers. Dr. François Cardarelli has spent many years compiling and editing materials data. His professional expertise and experience combine to make this handbook an indispensable reference tool for scientists and engineers working in numerous fields ranging from chemical to nuclear engineering. Particular emphasis is placed on the properties of common industrial materials in each class. After a chapter introducing some general properties of materials, materials are classified as follows. ferrous metals and their alloys; ferroalloys; common nonferrous metals; less common metals; minor metals; semiconductors and superconductors; magnetic materials; insulators and dielectrics; miscellaneous electrical materials; ceramics, refractories and glasses; polymers and elastomers; minerals, ores and gemstones; rocks and meteorites; soils and fertilizers; construction materials; timbers and woods; fuels, propellants and explosives; composite materials; gases; liquids; food, oils, resin and waxes; nuclear materials. food materials

Ferroalloys   Alloying Additives Handbook
Author: Paul D. Deeley
Publisher:
Release Date: 1981
Pages: 127
ISBN:
Available Language: English, Spanish, And French
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Steel And Iron Handbook
Author: B.P. Bhardwaj
Publisher: NIIR PROJECT CONSULTANCY SERVICES
Release Date: 2014-01-01
Pages: 472
ISBN:
Available Language: English, Spanish, And French
EBOOK SYNOPSIS:

Modern civilization as people know it would not be possible without Iron and Steel. Iron has been a vital material in technology for well over three thousand years. However, since ancient times, steel is made by alloying iron with carbon to produce a harder, stronger metal that will take a much keener edge. Owing to its intense connections with core infrastructural segments of the economy, steel industry is of high priority and importance. Steel has probably the widest range of applications of any material. The wide range of alloy compositions, mechanical properties and product forms available make it a versatile material that is used in components and products that may be small or large, high-tech or low-tech, everyday or specialist. In an introduction to modern steel making, an attempt has been made to cover, as the space would permit, the entire field of steel making with equal emphasis on the general practices and the underlying principles. This book is intended as a resource and as an introduction to the layman about our most important metal system. This book provides basic information covering every aspect of iron and steel production as well as a practical aid for workers engaged in the field. After an introduction that deals with the history and production of iron and steel, the rest of the book examines their physical properties and metallurgy. Beginning with a brief introduction to the ferrous alloys and metals, types and production of cast iron, production of compacted Graphite Irons, Ductile Iron, Malleable Cast Iron and current status of steel making together with the reasons for obsolescence of Bessemer converter and open hearth processes, the book moves on to: elaborate the physiochemical principles involved in steel making; explain the operational principles and practices of the modern processes of primary steel making (LD converter, Q-BOP process, and electric arc furnace process); provide a summary of the developments in secondary refining of steels; discuss principles and practices of ingot casting and continuous casting of steels; discusses the defects in the steel produced and also the remedies for their removal. This book provides considerable information in an easily assimilable form and makes an ideal introduction to the complex subject of steel technology.

World Steel Industry Data Handbook
Author:
Publisher:
Release Date: 1978
Pages:
ISBN:
Available Language: English, Spanish, And French
EBOOK SYNOPSIS: