This pamphlet is adapted from Chapter 1 of Silent Revolution: The International Monetary Fund, 1979-89, by the same author. That book is full of history of the evolution of the Fund during 11 years in which the institution truly came of age as a participant in the international financial system.
global finance and development
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The question of money, how to provide it, and how to acquire it where needed is axiomatic to development. The realities of global poverty and the inequalities between the ‘haves’ and the ‘have-nots’ are clear and well documented, and the gaps between world’s richest and the world’s poorest are ever-increasing. But, even though funding development is assumed to be key, the relationship between finance and development is contested and complex. This book explores the variety of relationships between finance and development, offering a broad and critical understanding of these connections and perspectives. It breaks finance down into its various aspects, with separate chapters on aid, debt, equity, microfinance and remittances. Throughout the text, finance is presented as a double-edged sword: while it is a vital tool towards poverty reduction, helping to fund development, more critical approaches remind us of the ways in which finance can hinder development. It contains a range of case studies throughout to illustrate finance in practice, including, UK aid to India, debt in Zambia, Apple’s investment in China, microfinance in Mexico, government bond issues in Chile, and financial crisis in East Asia. The text develops and explores a number of themes throughout, such as the relationship between public and private sources of finance and debates about direct funding versus the allocation of credit through commercial financial markets. The book also explores finance and development interactions at various levels, from the global structure of finance through to local and everyday practices. Global Finance and Development offers a critical understanding of the nature of finance and development. This book encourages the reader to see financial processes as embedded within the broader structure of social relationships. Finance is defined and demonstrated to be money and credit, but also, crucially, the social relationships and institutions that enable the creation and distribution of credit and the consequences thereof. This valuable text is essential reading for all those concerned with poverty, inequality and development.
This publication reviews the major financing issues influencing economic development since the historic Monterrey Consensus of the International Conference on Financing for Development in 2002. It contains four main chapters under the headings of: international private capital flows; official development financing; external debt; and systemic issues.
This book traces the roots of global financial integration in the first “modern” era of globalisation from 1880 to 1913 and can serve as a valuable tool to current-day policy dilemmas by using historical data to see which policies in the past led to enhanced international financing for development.
This new annual publication from the World Bank Group provides an overview and assessment of financial sector development around the world, with particular attention on medium- and low-income countries.
Global Financial Development Report 2015/2016 focuses on the ability of financial systems to sustainably extend the maturity of financial contracts for private agents. The challenges of extending the maturity structure of finance are often considered to be at the core of effective, sustainable financial development. Sustainably extending long-term finance may contribute to the objectives of higher growth and welfare, shared prosperity and stability in two ways: by reducing rollover risks for borrowers, thereby lengthening the horizon of investments; and by increasing the availability of long-term financial instruments, thereby allowing households to address their lifecycle challenges. The aim of the report is to contribute to the global policy debate on long-term finance. It builds upon findings from recent and ongoing research, lessons from operational work, as well as on inputs from financial sector professionals and researchers both within and outside the World Bank Group. Benefitting from new worldwide datasets and information on financial development, it will provide a broad and balanced review of the evidence and distill pragmatic lessons on long-term finance and related policies. This report, the third in the Global Financial Development Report series, follows the second issue on Financial Inclusion and the inaugural issue, Rethinking the Role of the State in Finance. The Global Financial Development Report 2015/2016 will be accompanied by a website worldbank.org/financialdevelopment containing extensive datasets, research papers, and other background materials as well as interactive features.
The second issue in a new series, Global Financial Development Report 2014 takes a step back and re-examines financial inclusion from the perspective of new global datasets and new evidence. It builds on a critical mass of new research and operational work produced by World Bank Group staff as well as outside researchers and contributors.
Asia Leading the Way explores how the region is moving into a leadership role in the world economy. The issue looks at Asia's biggest economy, China, which has relied heavily on exports to grow, and its need to increase domestic demand and to promote global integration if it is to continue to thrive. China is not the only Asian economy that heavily depends on exports and all of them might take some cues from the region's second-biggest economy, India, which has a highly developed services sector. Min Zhu, the new Special Advisor to the IMF's Managing Director, talks about Asia in the global economy, the global financial crisis, correcting imbalances, and the IMF in Asia. And "People in Economics" profiles an Asian crusader for corporate governance, Korea's Jang Hasung. This issue of F&D also covers how best to reform central banking in the aftermath of the global economic crisis; the pernicious effects of derivatives trading on municipal government finances in Europe and the United States; and some ominous news for governments hoping to rely on better times to help them reduce their debt burdens. Mohamed El-Erian argues that sovereign wealth funds are well-placed to navigate the new global economy that will emerge following the world wide recession. "Back to Basics" explains supply and demand. "Data Spotlight" explores the continuing weakness in bank credit. And "Picture This" focuses on the high, and growing, cost of energy subsidies.
This theoretical and practical overview of the international legal architecture between developing countries and advanced nations is divided into two parts, the first providing a theoretical overview of the philosophical implications of international development law principles; the second deals with international financial architecture.
Emerging market economies have accounted for three quarters of world economic growth and more than half of world output over the last decade. But the energy and ideas inherent in emerging economies cannot generate growth by themselves without resources to support them -- and first among these resources is money which is needed to purchase the capital and knowhow that turn ideas and initiative into income. How do emerging economies rich in resources other than money get money? This question encapsulates what emerging market finance is all about, and why finance is absolutely crucial to economic development. In emerging countries, most of the population does not have access to bank accounts or financial markets to save or borrow. The result is that many firms cannot get access to financial resources to grow, while households cannot borrow and save in ways that could reduce the riskiness and poverty of their lives. Even those that do have access to formal finance find that credit is unreliable and expensive. These financial failures limit growth and also increase the frequency of costly financial crises. These issues, and many more like them, mean that finance in emerging economies is different and often more complex than the view presented in most textbooks, where finance is only considered from the perspective of wealthy, developed economies. This book addresses this failure by focusing on the important characteristics of financial systems in emerging market economies and their differences from those in developed countries. This book surveys both theoretical and empirical research on finance in emerging economies, as well as reviewing numerous case studies. The final chapters describe and compare financial systems within the four different regions that encompass most emerging economies: Sub-Saharan Africa, the Middle East, Asia, and South America.