This accessible book identifies twelve mechanisms of political radicalization that can move individuals, groups, and the masses to increased sympathy and support for political violence. Terrorism is an extreme form of radicalization, and the book describes pathways to terrorism to demonstrate the twelve mechanisms at work. Written by two psychologists who are acknowledged radicalization experts and consultants to the Department of Homeland Security, Friction draws heavily on case histories. The case material is wide-ranging - drawn from Russia in the late 1800s, the US in the 1970s, and the radical Islam encouraged by the fall of the Soviet Union in the 1990s. Taken together, the twelve mechanisms show how unexceptional people are moved to exceptional violence in the conflict between states and non-state challengers. Captivating, and with psychological overtones, this timely book covers one of the most pressing issues of our time.
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This classic work, originally published in 1950, was a landmark in the development of the subject of tribology. When it was first published, one reviewer wrote that it 'marks the beginning of a new epoch in the study of friction and lubrication .... The most interesting and comprehensive work on a single branch of physics I have ever read.' For the 1986 reprint David Tabor wrote a new preface, reviewing developments in the subject in the 36 years since the book first appeared. He has also added an appreciation of the life and work of F.P. Bowden, who died in 1968.
A wheel turns because of its encounter with the surface of the road; spinning in the air it goes nowhere. Rubbing two sticks together produces heat and light; one stick alone is just a stick. In both cases, it is friction that produces movement, action, effect. Challenging the widespread view that globalization invariably signifies a "clash" of cultures, anthropologist Anna Tsing here develops friction in its place as a metaphor for the diverse and conflicting social interactions that make up our contemporary world. She focuses on one particular "zone of awkward engagement"--the rainforests of Indonesia--where in the 1980s and the 1990s capitalist interests increasingly reshaped the landscape not so much through corporate design as through awkward chains of legal and illegal entrepreneurs that wrested the land from previous claimants, creating resources for distant markets. In response, environmental movements arose to defend the rainforests and the communities of people who live in them. Not confined to a village, a province, or a nation, the social drama of the Indonesian rainforest includes local and national environmentalists, international science, North American investors, advocates for Brazilian rubber tappers, UN funding agencies, mountaineers, village elders, and urban students, among others--all combining in unpredictable, messy misunderstandings, but misunderstandings that sometimes work out. Providing a portfolio of methods to study global interconnections, Tsing shows how curious and creative cultural differences are in the grip of worldly encounter, and how much is overlooked in contemporary theories of the global.
This book lays out the fundamentals of friction stir welding and processing and builds toward practical perspectives. The authors describe the links between the thermo-mechanical aspects and the microstructural evolution and use of these for the development of the friction stir process as a broader metallurgical tool for microstructural modification and manufacturing. The fundamentals behind the practical aspects of tool design, process parameter selection and weld related defects are discussed. Local microstructural refinement has enabled new concepts of superplastic forming and enhanced low temperature forming. The collection of friction stir based technologies is a versatile set of solid state manufacturing tools.
The study of sliding friction is one of the oldest problems in physics, and certainly one of the most important from a practical point of view. Low-friction surfaces are in increasingly high demand for high-tech components such as computer storage systems, miniature motors, and aerospace devices. It has been estimated that about 5% of the gross national product in the developed countries is "wasted" on friction and the related wear. In spite of this, remarkable little is understood about the fundamental, microscopic processes responsible for friction and wear. The topic of interfacial sliding has experienced a major burst of in terest and activity since 1987, much of which has developed quite independently and spontaneously. This volume contains contributions from leading scientists on fundamental aspects of sliding friction. Some problems considered are: What is the origin of stick-and-slip motion? What is the origin of the rapid processes taking place within a lub at low sliding velocities? On a metallic surface, is the rication layer electronic or phononic friction the dominating energy dissipation pro cess? What is the role (if any) of self-organized criticality in sliding friction? How thick is the water layer during sliding on ice and snow? These and other questions raised in this book are of course only part ly answered: the topic of sliding friction is still in an early state of development.
It is my ambition in writing this book to bring tribology to the study of control of machines with friction. Tribology, from the greek for study of rubbing, is the discipline that concerns itself with friction, wear and lubrication. Tribology spans a great range of disciplines, from surface physics to lubrication chemistry and engineering, and comprises investigators in diverse specialities. The English language tribology literature now grows at a rate of some 700 articles per year. But for all of this activity, in the three years that I have been concerned with the control of machines with friction, I have but once met a fellow controls engineer who was aware that the field existed, this including many who were concerned with friction. In this vein I must confess that, before undertaking these investigations, I too was unaware that an active discipline of friction existed. The experience stands out as a mark of the specialization of our time. Within tribology, experimental and theoretical understanding of friction in lubricated machines is well developed. The controls engineer's interest is in dynamics, which is not the central interest of the tribologist. The tribologist is more often concerned with wear, with respect to which there has been enormous progress - witness the many mechanisms which we buy today that are lubricated once only, and that at the factory. Though a secondary interest, frictional dynamics are note forgotten by tribology.
The ability to produce durable low-friction surfaces and lubricant fluids has become an important factor in the miniaturization of moving components in many technological devices, e.g., magnetic storage, recording systems, miniature motors and many aerospace components. This book will be useful to physicists, chemists, materials scientists, and engineers who need to understand sliding friction. This second edition covers several new topics including friction on superconductors, simulations of the layering transition, nanoindentation, wear in combustion engines, rolling and sliding of carbon nanotubes, and the friction dynamics of granular materials.
This synthesis report will be of interest to pavement design, construction, management, and research engineers, highway safety officials, and others concerned with pavement friction characteristics. It describes the current state of the practice and discusses the methods used for evaluating wet pavement friction characteristics of new and restored pavements. This synthesis reviews models used for measuring and evaluating friction and texture, causes for friction changes over time, and aggregate and mix design to provide adequate friction. Also presented are construction and surface restoration practices for providing good pavement surface characteristics. In addition, considerations of noise and ride quality are discussed when compromise may be required.
The result of Kenneth C Ludema's 35 years of teaching and research, Friction, Wear, Lubrication: A Textbook in Tribology presents a broad view of the many aspects of tribology. All major aspects of this discipline are included, from mechanical to materials to chemical to mechanics. Ludema's key research areas - marginally lubricated wear and friction - will be of special interest to readers who would like to find reliable and useful data on friction and wear rates. Written primarily as a text/reference, this informative volume describes how to solve design problems in friction and wear. By applying close and informed observation of presently operating tribological systems, along with careful design of simulative tests, readers can develop their own conclusions of tribological results. This book is intended to bring everyone solving problems in friction and wear to the same understanding of what is (and what is not) involved in this exciting field. Seniors and graduate students, as well as practicing engineers employed in a wide range of industries will find this book to be an essential and practical resource.