exosomes

Exosomes
Author: Lawrence R. Edelstein
Publisher: Academic Press
Release Date: 2019-10-16
Pages: 548
ISBN:
Available Language: English, Spanish, And French
EBOOK SYNOPSIS:

Exosomes: A Clinical Compendium is a comprehensive and authoritative account of exosomes in the context of biomarkers, diagnostics, and therapeutics across a wide spectrum of medical disciplines, as well as their role in cell-cell communication. It is intended to serve as a reference source for clinicians, physicians, and research scientists who wish to gain insight into the most recent advances in this rapidly growing field. The exosome revolution may well be the greatest advance in physiology and medicine since antibiotics. The discovery of their epigenetic role in intercellular signaling in virtually all tissues is a major breakthrough in our understanding of how cells function. Provides readers with a broad and timely overview of exosomes in health and disease, closing with a thought-provoking chapter on transgenerational inheritance, Darwin and Lamarck. Summarizes the most recent laboratory and clinical findings on exosomes across numerous medical disciplines, thereby offering readers a broad-ranging and solid foundation for prospective investigative efforts Twenty-one chapters authored by a global team of peer-acknowledged experts, each representing a key medical disciplineProvides readers with a broad and timely overview of exosomes in health and disease, closing

Exosomes In Cardiovascular Diseases
Author: Junjie Xiao
Publisher: Springer
Release Date: 2017-09-19
Pages: 307
ISBN:
Available Language: English, Spanish, And French
EBOOK SYNOPSIS:

The book provides and intensive overview on exosomes in cardiovascular diseases, its potential as biomarkers, as well as pathological and therapeutic effects. It firstly describes the general aspects of exosomes including the definition, formation and secretion of exosomes and highlight their roles as biomarkers and pathological and therapeutic effects in cardiovascular diseases as well. Secondly, basic aspects of exosomes including the purification methods of exosomes, exosomes content, and functional roles of the cardiovascular exosomes are summarized. Thirdly, exosomes as biomarkers of cardiovascular diseases are overviewed including their roles in diagnosis, prognosis and reaction to therapy. Fourthly, pathological effects of exosomes and therapeutic effects of exosomes are highlighted. Finally, future prospects of exosomes in cardiovascular research would be provided. This is an essential reference for researchers working in cell biology and regeneration, as well as clinicians such as cardiologist.

Diagnostic And Therapeutic Applications Of Exosomes In Cancer
Author: Mansoor M. Amiji
Publisher: Academic Press
Release Date: 2018-05-09
Pages: 400
ISBN:
Available Language: English, Spanish, And French
EBOOK SYNOPSIS:

Diagnostic and Therapeutic Applications of Exosomes in Cancer evaluates the potential of exosome content manipulation in the development of novel therapeutics. In recent years, exosomes, the small vesicles produced by all cell types, have been identified as contributors to cancer growth and metastasis. However, due to their unique biophysical properties, they are also being tested for use in therapeutic design and delivery, as well as in diagnostics. This book presents a comprehensive analysis on exosomes, with a main emphasis on their biogenesis and signaling, use as biomarkers, and as tools for imaging, drug delivery and the treatment of cancer. Covers emerging pharmaceutical and diagnostic applications, including exosomes being tested as carriers of anticancer drugs, ongoing clinical trials, and exosomes as imaging agents for cancer diagnosis and treatment Brings together a team of highly regarded international authors who provide a full-rounded analysis Presents comprehensive coverage of the unique biophysical properties of exosomes Explores current and future possibilities

Role Of Exosomes In Biological Communication Systems
Author: Faisal A. Alzahrani
Publisher: Springer Nature
Release Date: 2020-11-20
Pages: 373
ISBN:
Available Language: English, Spanish, And French
EBOOK SYNOPSIS:

This book reviews the role of exosomes and extracellular vesicles in both normal and pathological conditions. It first explains isolation methods for exosomes, and analyzes their fine structure and biological functions. Further, it highlights exosomes’ role as the key regulator in embryonic-maternal communication, and in the pathogenesis of various diseases, including cancer and urogenital, infectious, and neurodegenerative diseases. Moreover, it reviews the latest advances in using stem-cell-derived exosomes as a cell-free strategy in regenerative medicine, as well as the potential of exosomal microRNA as a promising non-invasive biomarker and targetable factor in cancer diagnosis and treatment. Lastly, it explores the use of natural and synthetic exosomes as nano-vehicles for efficient drug delivery.

Novel Implications Of Exosomes In Diagnosis And Treatment Of Cancer And Infectious Diseases
Author: Jin Wang
Publisher: BoD – Books on Demand
Release Date: 2017-07-12
Pages: 192
ISBN:
Available Language: English, Spanish, And French
EBOOK SYNOPSIS:

The aim of this book is to provide an overview of the importance of exosomes in the biomedical field, which involves in novel implications of exosomes in diagnosis and treatment of cancer and infectious diseases. The book would definitely be an ideal source of scientific information of exosomes to researchers and scientists involved in biomedicine, biology, and other areas involving cancer and infectious diseases.

MiRNA Analysis Of HMSC Derived Exosomes Compared Across Isolation Techniques
Author: Alisha Knudson
Publisher:
Release Date: 2015
Pages: 76
ISBN:
Available Language: English, Spanish, And French
EBOOK SYNOPSIS:

Exosomes are a class of nano-sized extracellular vesicles, typically 40-150 nm in diameter, that are released from endocytic multivesicular bodies. Exosomal contents are unique to the cell from which they are secreted, and the resulting combination of functional proteins, enzymes, and genes suggests exosomes with a variety of functions. In recent years, exosomes have been found to play fundamental roles in cellular communication and are secreted by nearly all cell types, including tumor and stem cells. Recently, exosomes have been majorly investigated for potential diagnostic use. For example, tumor cells secrete a higher number of exosomes than normal tissue cells, such that exosome count alone could be used as a diagnostic tool for tumorigenesis. Exosomes are also attractive in regards to cell-free therapy, due to their endogenous cell-specific targeted delivery of genes, protein, and small molecules. In particular, this approach could majorly improve therapies related to mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Recent research indicates that the MSC secretome (i.e. the full panel of biomolecules and particles released by the cell) can achieve the same therapeutic results as MSCs themselves. Thus MSC exosomes and other extracellular vesicles are poised to highly impact stromal therapy methods and must be further understood. Despite the explosion of substantial discoveries related to exosome structure and function over the past few years, the basics of isolation, handling, characterization, and even the very definition of exosomes have yet to be standardized. Despite the prevalence of three major methods of exosome isolation: (i) differential ultracentrifugation which relies on a series of centrifugation steps, (ii) density gradient ultracentrifugation, isolating exosomes based on their density, and (iii) commercial precipitation reagents whose composition and mechanism is proprietary, very few studies perform in-depth side by side comparisons of the resulting exosome biomolecular profile. The project described here focuses on the optimization of exosome isolation and characterization, followed by a novel large-scale case study of hMSC-derived exosomes and their genomic profile by next-generation microRNA microarray analysis. In particular we discovered that miRNA expression levels actually vary by exosome collection methodology. The alteration in miRNA expression levels indicate a subpopulation of exosomes based on different exosome collection methodology. This discovery is of central importance for research employing hMSC-exosomes for therapy and extracellular vesicles in general.

Mesenchymal Stem Cell Derived Exosomes
Author: Yaoliang Tang
Publisher: Academic Press
Release Date: 2015-09-02
Pages: 288
ISBN:
Available Language: English, Spanish, And French
EBOOK SYNOPSIS:

Mesenchymal stem cell-derived exosomes are at the forefront of research in two of the most high profile and funded scientific areas – cardiovascular research and stem cells. Mesenchymal Stem Cell Derived Exosomes provides insight into the biofunction and molecular mechanisms, practical tools for research, and a look toward the clinical applications of this exciting phenomenon which is emerging as an effective diagnostic. Primarily focused on the cardiovascular applications where there have been the greatest advancements toward the clinic, this is the first compendium for clinical and biomedical researchers who are interested in integrating MSC-derived exosomes as a diagnostic and therapeutic tool. Introduces the MSC-exosome mediated cell-cell communication Covers the major functional benefits in current MSC-derived exosome studies Discusses strategies for the use of MSC-derived exosomes in cardiovascular therapies

Emerging Concepts Of Tumor Exosome   Mediated Cell Cell Communication
Author: Huang-Ge Zhang
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
Release Date: 2012-09-06
Pages: 220
ISBN:
Available Language: English, Spanish, And French
EBOOK SYNOPSIS:

In multicellular organisms, communication between cells involves secretion of proteins that bind to receptors on neighboring cells. While this has been well documented, another mode of intercellular communication has recently become the subject of increasing interest: the release of exosomes. In cancer, tumor exosomes are involved in various aspects of pathogenesis, including proliferation, immunosuppression, and metastasis. Given the ability of exosomes to export unneeded endogenous molecules from cells, these structures hold great potential as anticancer therapeutic agents. They are also being studied as prognostic markers for cancer.

Exosomes And Their Role In The Intercellular Trafficking Of Normal And Disease Associated Prion Proteins
Author:
Publisher:
Release Date: 2018
Pages:
ISBN:
Available Language: English, Spanish, And French
EBOOK SYNOPSIS:

Abstract: Over the past decade, small extracellular vesicles called exosomes have been observed to harbour protein and genetic cargo that can assist in health and also cause disease. Many groups are extensively investigating the mechanisms involved that regulate the trafficking and packaging of exosomal contents and how these processes may be deregulated in disease. Prion diseases are transmissible neurodegenerative disorders and are characterized by the presence of detectable misfolded prion proteins. The disease associated form of the prion protein can be found in exosomes and its transmissible properties have provided a reliable experimental read out that can be used to understand how exosomes and their cargo are involved in cell-cell communication and in the spread of prion diseases. This review reports on the current understanding of how exosomes are involved in the intercellular spread of infectious prions. Furthermore, we discuss how these principles are leading future investigations in developing new exosome based diagnostic tools and therapeutic drugs that could be applied to other neurodegenerative diseases.

Exosomes  Stem Cells And MicroRNA
Author: Karl L. Mettinger
Publisher: Springer
Release Date: 2018-04-07
Pages: 152
ISBN:
Available Language: English, Spanish, And French
EBOOK SYNOPSIS:

This volume provides insight into the pivotal roles of stem cells, exosomes and other microvesicles in biofunction and molecular mechanisms and their therapeutic potential in translational nanomedicine. It further highlights evidence from recent studies as to how stem cell derived exosomes and microRNAs may restore and maintain tissue homeostasis, enable cells to recover critical cellular functions and begin repair regeneration. These early studies in animal models of aging also show evidence of improved immune, cardiovascular and cognitive functions as well as improved health span and life span. The use of exosomes from body fluids to define specific biomarkers for various tumors may also clear the path to patient-targeted treatments by developing exosome-derived microRNA based cancer therapeutics. It is essential reading for graduate students, research fellow and biomedical researchers in academia or the pharmaceutical or biotech industries.

RNA Exosome
Author: Torben Heick Jensen
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
Release Date: 2011-06-29
Pages: 144
ISBN:
Available Language: English, Spanish, And French
EBOOK SYNOPSIS:

The diversity of RNAs inside living cells is amazing. We have known of the more “classic” RNA species: mRNA, tRNA, rRNA, snRNA and snoRNA for some time now, but in a steady stream new types of molecules are being described as it is becoming clear that most of the genomic information of cells ends up in RNA. To deal with the enormous load of resulting RNA processing and degradation reactions, cells need adequate and efficient molecular machines. The RNA exosome is arising as a major facilitator to this effect. Structural and functional data gathered over the last decade have illustrated the biochemical importance of this multimeric complex and its many co-factors, revealing its enormous regulatory power. By gathering some of the most prominent researchers in the exosome field, it is the aim of this volume to introduce this fascinating protein complex as well as to give a timely and rich account of its many functions. The exosome was discovered more than a decade ago by Phil Mitchell and David Tollervey by its ability to trim the 3’end of yeast, S. cerevisiae, 5. 8S rRNA. In a historic account they laid out the events surrounding this identification and the subsequent birth of the research field. In the chapter by Kurt Januszyk and Christopher Lima the structural organization of eukaryotic exosomes and their evolutionary counterparts in bacteria and archaea are discussed in large part through presentation of structures.

Role Of Luteal Cell Derived Exosomes In Communication With Immune Cells
Author: Katie Branham
Publisher:
Release Date: 2015
Pages:
ISBN:
Available Language: English, Spanish, And French
EBOOK SYNOPSIS:

The corpus luteum (CL) is a vital organ for the production of progesterone (P4) which maintains pregnancy in ruminants. Immune cells infiltrate the CL and increase in number during luteal regression. These immune cells communicate with luteal cells to either sustain the CL for maintenance of pregnancy or promote regression of the CL, resulting in progression to the next estrous cycle. Luteal cell communication with T lymphocytes (T cells) can program the T cell responses, and luteal cells from fully functional CL can activate T cells through paracrine mediators. The mediators of this communication are not well understood. To investigate these interactions, we hypothesized that luteal cells secrete extracellular vesicles, such as exosomes, and that these exosomes serve as a means of communication from luteal steroidogenic cells to resident immune cells. Exosomes are 15-100 nm vesicles released from cells that contain protein, miRNA, and mRNA, which can later function of target cells. Currently, there is no research on the role of exosomes in the CL or the interaction between luteal cell-derived exosomes and the immune system. Thus, the objective of the first study was to determine an optimal method for the isolation of exosomes from luteal cell-conditioned media. Luteal cells were isolated and cultured for 48 hours. Media was collected, concentrated and exosomes were isolated by three methods: ultracentrifugation and two commercial exosome isolation reagents. Analysis of exosomes using electron microscopy revealed the expected cup-shaped morphology. Concentration of exosomes isolated from regressing luteal cell-conditioned media was less than from midcycle luteal cell-conditioned media. An experiment was conducted to determine if luteal cell-derived exosomes affected T cell function by interacting with surface markers on T cells or internalization. To determine if T cells can internalize luteal cell-derived exosomes, luteal cell-derived exosomes were co-cultured with T cells and analyzed using FlowSight imaging cytometry and confocal microscopy. This experiment revealed that the majority of T cells internalized exosomes. Next, a study was conducted to determine the effect of exosomes on T cell function. The maximum T cell proliferation achieved was 23%. T cells were also collected and their phenotype was determined by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) for expression of TH1 (T helper cell 1) and TH2 (T helper cell 2) mRNA expression. Midcycle luteal cell-derived exosomes increased TNF and decreased IL10 mRNA expression while regressing luteal cell-derived exosomes decreased TNF, IFNG, IL4 and IL10 mRNA expression. Finally, an experiment was conducted to determine if luteal-derived exosomes affect monocyte differentiation and if so, determine the characteristics of the macrophages that arise. Midcycle or regressing luteal cell-derived exosomes were added to PBMCs along with GMCSF or MCSF and mRNA expression for macrophage cell type-specific genes was determined. Midcycle luteal cell-derived exosomes drove monocyte differentiation into macrophages that were characterized by highly significant expression of TNF, IL1B, NOS2, CD36, IL10 and TGFB while regressing luteal cell-derived exosomes induced greater expression of TNF, NOS2, CCL24 and IL10.In summary, bovine luteal cells from both physiological states released exosomes into culture media with luteal cells from regressing CL releasing fewer exosomes than midcycle luteal cells. Exosomes were internalized into T cells, and midcycle luteal cell-derived exosomes induced T cell proliferation. Also, midcycle luteal cell-derived exosomes were able induce a TH1 phenotype while regressing exosomes down regulated all T cell markers measured. Finally, midcycle and regressing luteal cell-derived exosomes drove monocyte differentiation that was dependent on both prior priming toward M1 or M2 and on source of the exosomes. In conclusion, bovine luteal cells release exosomes that may facilitate communication with immune cells and provide an alternative method to direct cell-cell contact by which luteal cells communicate with immune cells to control the luteal microenvironment.

Biology Of Exosomes And Their Microrna Cargos In Human And Bovine Milk
Author: Amy L. Leiferman
Publisher:
Release Date: 2018
Pages: 81
ISBN:
Available Language: English, Spanish, And French
EBOOK SYNOPSIS:

Exosomes are small, cargo-containing vesicles secreted by cells to facilitate intercellular communication. Of exosome cargos, microRNAs are especially interesting because of their involvement in gene regulation. Recently, our lab has shown that exosomes and their microRNA cargo are absorbed through the diet and elicit effects exogenously. Human and animal milk contain exosomes, which may have implications in infant and adult nutrition. There is evidence that bovine milk exosomes enhance growth of murine C2C12 myotube cell cultures, but whether this translates to muscle in vivo is unknown. The USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference is lacking up-to-date information about human milk constituents, including their exosome and microRNA content. This thesis focuses on two specific aims: 1) the effect of dietary bovine milk exosomes on strength, gene expression and amino acid profiles in murine skeletal muscles and 2) the feasibility and methodological groundwork for studying microRNA in exosomes from small volumes of human milk. Aim 1: Mice were fed exosome-defined diets and variables of feeding behavior, metabolism, grip strength, liver and kidney function, amino acid profiles, and gene expression patterns were assessed. No effects were observed for food and water intake, respiratory exchange rate, physical activity, grip strength, markers of liver and kidney dysfunction, and amino acid profiles in muscle. Only a modest effect on gene expression in skeletal muscle was observed, consistent with recent observations that bovine milk exosomes and their cargos accumulate in tissues other than skeletal muscle. Aim 2: The content of extracellular vesicles (EVs) in human milk was assessed under different storage conditions at timed intervals. Exosomes were purified from 1 mL of fresh human milk and their microRNA content was assessed by microRNA-sequencing analysis and compared to that in three brands of infant formula. Storage conditions were determined a confounder when analyzing microRNAs in human milk exosomes. MicroRNA-sequencing analysis is feasible in exosomes from small volumes of milk and the content of microRNAs in infant formulas was negligible compared to human milk.

Regenerative Potential Of Mesenchymal Stem Cell Derived Exosomes
Author: Andrew P. Wong
Publisher:
Release Date: 2019
Pages:
ISBN:
Available Language: English, Spanish, And French
EBOOK SYNOPSIS:

Bone defects are a pervasive complication arising from many clinical conditions, both mechanical and pathological. Current treatments for large bony defects focus on applying bone grafts or synthetic materials to the defect area. Cell-based-and especially stem-cell-therapies have advanced greatly thanks to increasing attention focused on their ability to generate new tissues in situ with biomechanical properties approaching that of native tissue, but they suffer from their own shortcomings as well. Exosomes have been shown to play critical roles in cell-signaling and tissue regeneration and are therefore potentially ideal therapeutic vehicles for treating bone defects. Exosomes are small microvesicles counted amongst stem cells' paracrine factors capable of delivering nucleic acid and enzymatic protein cargoes in a targeted 2 manner. Our previous studies have shown that hM. S.C-Exosomes are both proliferative and chemotactic, inhibit inflammatory cytokine production, and suppress osteoclast differentiation. Our long term goal is to develop hMSC-Exosome as a clinical therapy for bone regeneration. The objectives of this study were to determine the ability of hMSC-Exosome to enhance bone healing in a rat calvarial defect model, and to further investigate the integrity of the exosome under certain storage conditions. The specific aims of this study were: 1) To determine the osteogenic potential of hMSC-Exosomes in rat calvarial defects, and 2) To determine the impact of variable storage conditions on the integrity of exosomes. To investigate in vivo regenerative potential, rats with surgically-created craniotomy defects were treated with hMSC-Exosome suspension via a collagen gel matrix. After 4 weeks, the calvaria were harvested and analyzed via micro-CT. Volumetric micro-CT analysis showed that hMSC-Exosome could significantly enhance center healing, structural integrity, and growth uniformity in a calvarial defect model. Western blot and TEM showed thorough destruction of surface protein markers and decreased membrane integrity in lyophilized exosome fraction; moderate progressive surface protein marker loss and aggregation were observed with increasing freeze-thaw cycles. In summary, hMSC-Exosome is a promising therapeutic for treatment of bone defects.

Exosomes As Secondary Inductive Signals Involved In Kidney Organogenesis
Author:
Publisher:
Release Date: 2018
Pages:
ISBN:
Available Language: English, Spanish, And French
EBOOK SYNOPSIS:

ABSTRACT: The subfraction of extracellular vesicles, called exosomes, transfers biological molecular information not only between cells but also between tissues and organs as nanolevel signals. Owing to their unique properties such that they contain several RNA species and proteins implicated in kidney development, exosomes are putative candidates to serve as developmental programming units in embryonic induction and tissue interactions. We used the mammalian metanephric kidney and its nephron-forming mesenchyme containing the nephron progenitor/stem cells as a model to investigate if secreted exosomes could serve as a novel type of inductive signal in a process defined as embryonic induction that controls organogenesis. As judged by several characteristic criteria, exosomes were enriched and purified from a cell line derived from embryonic kidney ureteric bud (UB) and from primary embryonic kidney UB cells, respectively. The cargo of the UB-derived exosomes was analysed by qPCR and proteomics. Several miRNA species that play a role in Wnt pathways and enrichment of proteins involved in pathways regulating the organization of the extracellular matrix as well as tissue homeostasis were identified. When labelled with fluorescent dyes, the uptake of the exosomes by metanephric mesenchyme (MM) cells and the transfer of their cargo to the cells can be observed. Closer inspection revealed that besides entering the cytoplasm, the exosomes were competent to also reach the nucleus. Furthermore, fluorescently labelled exosomal RNA enters into the cytoplasm of the MM cells. Exposure of the embryonic kidney-derived exosomes to the whole MM in an ex vivo organ culture setting did not lead to an induction of nephrogenesis but had an impact on the overall organization of the tissue. We conclude that the exosomes provide a novel signalling system with an apparent role in secondary embryonic induction regulating organogenesis.

Effects Of Melanoma Derived Exosomes On Peritumoral Stromal Cells
Author: Tu00c3u00bcnde Buknicz
Publisher:
Release Date: 2017
Pages:
ISBN:
Available Language: English, Spanish, And French
EBOOK SYNOPSIS:

Recently great attention is given to the role of tumor-stroma interactions mediated by melanoma-derived exosomes as well as to their interaction with peritumoral stromal cells for tumor supporting microenvironment. Therefore we aimed to investigate the effects of human melanoma-derived exosomes on peritumoral stromal cells and their role in spontaneous cell fusion, previously described by our research group. Exosomes were isolated by differential ultracentrifugation from the supernatant of UACC-257 human melanoma cell line. Human parental cells, including fibroblasts and adipose derived stem cells, were freshly isolated from normal human skin. Myofibroblasts were generated from fibroblasts after 10 days treatment with TGFu03b2. For co-cultures we used UACC-257-GFP melanoma and fibroblast-RFP cell lines. Stromal cells and co-cultures were treated with exosomes at different dilutions (1x-10x-100x, respectively). Cell viability of the stromal cells was measured with xCELLigence System. Parental stromal cells were visualized by intravital membrane-labelling and immunocytochemistry. Co-cultures were digitalized by scanning microscope. Double positive cells were counted by Advanced Cell Classifier program after user-assisted intelligent computer learning. We observed increased cell impedance by xCELLigence, in line with it higher cell viability, proliferation and more confluent cell cultures in the exosome-treated parental fibroblasts, myofibroblasts and mesenchymal stem cells, respectively. SMA expression was increased in exosome-treated fibroblasts contrary to vimentin and desmin. Advanced Cell Classifier program did not show significantly increased spontaneous cell fusion rate in co-cultures. Based on our results melanoma-derived exosomes can influence normal stromal cells, since they affect their function, proliferation, and viability they may convert them into tumor promoting niche.

Human Saliva Derived Exosomes
Author:
Publisher:
Release Date: 2015
Pages:
ISBN:
Available Language: English, Spanish, And French
EBOOK SYNOPSIS:

ExoQuick-TC TM (EQ), a chemical-based agent designed to precipitate exosomes, was calibrated for use on saliva collected from healthy individuals. The morphological and molecular features of the precipitations were compared with those obtained using the classical, physical-based method of ultracentrifugation (UC). Electron microscopy and immunoelectron microscopy with anti-CD63 showed vesicular nanoparticles surrounded by bi-layered membrane, compatible with exosomes in EQ, similar to that observed with UC. Atomic force microscopy highlighted larger, irregularly shaped/aggregated EQ nanoparticles that contrasted with the single, round-shaped UC nanoparticles. ELISA (performed on 0.5 ml of saliva) revealed a tendency for a higher expression of the specific exosomal markers (CD63, CD9, CD81) in EQ than in UC ( p >0.05). ELISA for epithelial growth factor receptor, a non-exosomal-related marker, showed a significantly higher concentration in EQ than in UC ( p =0.04). Western blotting of equal total-protein concentrations revealed bands of CD63, CD9 and CD81 in both types of preparations, although they were less pronounced in EQ compared with UC. This may be related to a higher fraction of non-exosomal proteins in EQ. In conclusion, EQ is suitable and efficient for precipitation of salivary exosomes from small volumes of saliva; however, EQ tends to be associated with considerably more biological impurities (non-exosomal-related proteins/microvesicles) as compared with UC.

The Role Of Human M S C Derived Exosomes In The Treatment Of Periodontal Diseases
Author: Sonia S. Talegaonkar
Publisher:
Release Date: 2017
Pages:
ISBN:
Available Language: English, Spanish, And French
EBOOK SYNOPSIS:

Periodontal disease affects 47% of Americans over 30. Characterized by microbial dysbiosis and unregulated inflammation, severe periodontitis causes degradation of bone and soft tissue around teeth. Current treatments have limited regenerative outcomes and frequent reinfection by harmful bacteria. Human mesenchymal stem cells (hM. S. Cs) have been shown to promote wound healing and tissue regeneration. Many therapeutic benefits of hMSCs are due to their secretome products, like exosomes. Our long-term goal is to develop periodontal therapies with hMSC exosomes. The objectives of this study were to determine the effect of hMSC-derived exosomes on cellular activity of hMSCs and investigate whether hMSC exosome treatment reduces pro-inflammatory cytokine production in LPS-activated RAW264.7 cells. The specific aims of this study were: 1) Determine the characteristics of hMSC-derived exosomes, 2) Determine the biological effect of exosomes on cellular activity of hMSCs, 3) Determine whether exosomes treatment can inhibit cytokine production in activated RAW264.7 cells, and 4) Determine the role of exosomal miRNA in pro-inflammatory cytokine production of RAW264.7 cells. To investigate, exosomes were first harvested from hMSCs culture media through ultracentrifugation. Exosomes were then observed under a transmission electron microscope (TEM) and assessed for surface markers using Western Blot. A transwell migration assay was used to evaluate the chemotactic effect of exosomes. To study the effect of exosomes on stem cell proliferation, exosomes were administered to hMSCs. The immunogenicity of MSC exosome was also evaluated. After 72 hours, cells were lysed and DNA was measured. To study anti-inflammatory effects of exosomes, LPS stimulated RAW264.7 cells were treated with exosomes. Interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF[alpha]) levels of supernatant were measured by ELISA. To study exosomal miRNA, exosomal miRNAs were overexpressed in RAW264.7 cells and these cells were stimulated with LPS. IL-6 and TNF[alpha] were measured by ELISA. TEM images showed that exosomes are nano-sized vesicles (~100 nm). Western blot images showed that CD63 and CD81 are enriched in exosomes compared to total cell lysates. Exosome treatment increased cell proliferation and migration in hMSCs. At the doses that are chemotactic and mitogenic, MSC exosomes had minimal effect on the inflammatory cytokine IL-6 production. Treatment with exosomes significantly decreased IL-6 and TNF[alpha] production in RAW264.7 cells activated by LPS. Transfecting RAW264.7 cells with exosomal miR-760 significantly decreased IL-6 production, but had minimal effect on TNF[alpha]. Our results indicate that exosomes have a pleiotropic activity, which includes stimulating stem cell migration and proliferation, and mitigating the inflammatory response. Therefore, hMSC exosome delivery is promising for the treatment of periodontal diseases.

Exosomes
Author: Armando Meyer
Publisher:
Release Date: 2016-09
Pages: 92
ISBN:
Available Language: English, Spanish, And French
EBOOK SYNOPSIS:

Exosomes are small (30-100 nm diameter) membrane enclosed vesicles of endosomal origin, released by a variety of cell types, which are capable of transferring biologically active macromolecules, such as proteins, lipids and RNA to other cells. Therefore, exosomes are important mediators of intercellular communication influencing physiological or pathological processes at recipient cells. In this book, Chapter One briefly reviews the knowledge gained on the molecular mechanisms underlying exosome formation and release. Chapter Two studies whether the Extracellular Vesicle (EV) Array can be utilized to phenotype unpurified small EVs (sEVs) from other body fluids such as urine, saliva, synovial fluid, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), ascites, bone marrow (BM) and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF). Chapter Three examines the multifaceted roles of tumor-associated exosomes in the development and progression of cancer as well as the unique utility they present to detect, monitor, and therapeutically combat tumor occurrences. Chapter Four provides a review of the types of EVs encountered by sperm in the environment they traverse on their journey to the ampulla in the oviduct.

Renal And Urinary Proteomics
Author: Visith Thongboonkerd
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
Release Date: 2009-12-21
Pages: 384
ISBN:
Available Language: English, Spanish, And French
EBOOK SYNOPSIS:

Based on research and results from the international Human Kidney and Urine Proteome Project, this handbook and reference presents current methods and protocols for the analysis of human kidney and urine. The world's leading experts cover everything from basic techniques for routine analysis to advanced methods for difficult samples or analytes. Written with the practitioner in mind, all the methods and techniques are described with step-by-step protocols backed by much valuable practical advice taken from real life experiments.