evaluating water quality to prevent future disasters

Evaluating Water Quality To Prevent Future Disasters
Author:
Publisher: Academic Press
Release Date: 2019-05-24
Pages: 456
ISBN:
Available Language: English, Spanish, And French
EBOOK SYNOPSIS:

Evaluating Water Quality to Prevent Future Disasters, volume 11 in the Separation Science and Technology series, covers various separation methods that can be used to avoid water catastrophes arising from climate change, arsenic, lead, algal bloom, fracking, microplastics, flooding, glyphosphates, triazines, GenX, and oil contamination. This book provides a valuable resource that will help the reader solve their potential water contamination problems and help them develop their own new approaches to monitor water contamination. Highlights reasons for potential water catastrophes Provides separation methods for monitoring water contamination Encourages development of new methods for monitoring water contamination

Water Pollution Prevention And Control Act Of 1991
Author: United States. Congress. Senate. Committee on Environment and Public Works. Subcommittee on Environmental Protection
Publisher:
Release Date: 1991
Pages: 963
ISBN:
Available Language: English, Spanish, And French
EBOOK SYNOPSIS:

Establish A Department Of Consumer Affairs
Author: United States. Congress. Senate. Committee on Government Operations. Subcommittee on Executive Reorganization
Publisher:
Release Date: 1969
Pages: 826
ISBN:
Available Language: English, Spanish, And French
EBOOK SYNOPSIS:

Environmental Program For The Future
Author: United States. Forest Service
Publisher:
Release Date: 1974
Pages: 321
ISBN:
Available Language: English, Spanish, And French
EBOOK SYNOPSIS:

Dams In Japan
Author: Japan Commission on Large Dams - JCOLD
Publisher: CRC Press
Release Date: 2009-04-15
Pages: 240
ISBN:
Available Language: English, Spanish, And French
EBOOK SYNOPSIS:

Overview of Japan’s long water history, by the Japanese Commission on large dams. Starting from the 7th century, when irrigation ponds were first constructed for paddy cropping, until the beginning of the 21st century. Elaborates on various roles of dams: water supply, power generation and flood control. Moreover, tries to clarify the negative impacts of dams on the natural environment and local societies, as well as extensive efforts made to minimize these impacts. Includes appendices with location and characteristics of main dams, administrative organs, river management system and water resources development river systems and facilities to offer the full picture. Richly-illustrated. Intended for dam and water resources professionals.

Water Pollution Control Legislation
Author: United States. Congress. Senate. Committee on Public Works. Subcommittee on Air and Water Pollution
Publisher:
Release Date: 1971
Pages: 4415
ISBN:
Available Language: English, Spanish, And French
EBOOK SYNOPSIS:

1965 Flood Disasters In Colorado
Author: Colorado. General Assembly. Legislative Council
Publisher:
Release Date: 1965
Pages: 51
ISBN:
Available Language: English, Spanish, And French
EBOOK SYNOPSIS:

Evaluating Natural Resource Use In Agriculture
Author: Thyrele Robertson
Publisher:
Release Date: 1996
Pages: 382
ISBN:
Available Language: English, Spanish, And French
EBOOK SYNOPSIS:

A Novel Infield Metagenomic Approach To Evaluating Surface Water Quality In Lake Warner
Author: Brooke Stebbins
Publisher:
Release Date: 2019
Pages:
ISBN:
Available Language: English, Spanish, And French
EBOOK SYNOPSIS:

In January 2010, a magnitude 7.0 earthquake devastated Haiti, one of the poorest countries in the Western Hemisphere. Haiti's weak sanitation infrastructure and limitations in the public health system made the country susceptible to the spread of waterborne diseases. Following the earthquake, cholera rapidly spread through Haiti, killing 4,672 people in 5 months and leaving thousands hospitalized (MSNBC, 2010). Cholera is an infectious diarrheal disease caused by the pathogen, Vibrio cholerae, which results in severe dehydration with a high mortality risk. The source of the epidemic was traced to the Artibonite River, the island's longest and most essential drinking water source (Encyclopaedia Britannica. n.d.). The origin of the contamination was later discovered to be unsanitary conditions left from United Nations peacekeepers from Nepal. Eight years later, cholera cases are still prevalent, although numbers have declined recently due to aid from private organizations (Dowell, S.F. et al 2011, Katz, J.M. 2013). However, with climate-related increases in ocean water temperatures, scientists expect hurricanes to intensify and increase damage to developing countries (Center for Climate and Energy Solutions. n.d.). Natural disasters promote the spread of waterborne illness by isolating people from safe drinking water and destroying public health infrastructure such as happened with the cholera outbreak in Haiti (Funari, E. et al 2013). To prevent future waterborne disease epidemics in such areas with limited resources, it would be beneficial to improve environmental surveillance through development of rapid, reliable, and portable detection methods for waterborne pathogens. The advent of high-throughput sequencing technologies has enabled the detection and characterization of microbial communities in their natural environments, an approach known as metagenomics. Metagenomic sequencing, unlike more traditional PCR methodologies, is capable of sequencing thousands of organisms in a sample. This metagenomic shotgun sequencing approach detects the abundance of microbes and bacterial diversity in the environment (Illumina, n.d.). The Oxford Nanopore MinION is a shotgun sequencing device that is optimal for portable, rapid detection of the microbial diversity in an environmental sample (Oxford MinION, n.d.). This handheld device has enormous potential for field use in emergency preparedness and disease response, particularly in developing countries where more advanced analytical equipment may be inaccessible due to lack of facilities or damaged infrastructure. Having access to quick, infield assessment technology for rapidly emerging outbreaks would be beneficial to a disease-specific public health response. Current protocols recommend that DNA is extracted from environmental samples as rapidly as possible after collection. If cooling is available with an insulated ice chest, samples may be transported/stored for periods ranging from 6 to 24 hours. The shorter timeframes minimize unwanted shifts in microbial structure (U.S. Geological Survey, 1997, WHO, n.d.). Access to cold storage in remote areas is unlikely, and the use of liquid preservation methods could assist in maintaining quality of DNA, and hence produce more accurate data in metagenomic analyses. In the absence of cold storage facilities, infield filtration coupled with preservation techniques are necessary to maintain samples integrity for transport to laboratory facilities. This thesis aimed to develop an infield filtration and sequencing protocol, coupled with the Oxford Nanopore MinION sequencing platform, to identify the potential bacteria, viruses, protozoa, fungi, antimicrobial resistance (AMR), pathogenic strains, and virulence associated genes for use in remote locations. Five locations across Lake Warner, Massachusetts were used for method development, coupled with Millipore Sterivex filters for field filtration to determine the most effective method for sample preparation in remote locations. Additionally, a chemical preservation method was assessed using dimethyl sulfoxide, disodium EDTA, and saturated NaCl (DESS). A study by Gray et al, found that liquid preservation methods (DNAgard, RNAlater, and DESS) outperformed the card-based preservatives (FTA cards and FTA Elute cards) in terms of bacterial recovery (Gray, M.A., et al 2013). DESS was selected for investigation in this thesis because of the low cost compared to the other liquid-based preservatives. Lake Warner in Hadley, Massachusetts, which is heavily used for fishing and boating activities, flows into the Connecticut River via the Mill River. Historically, the lake experienced high Escherichia coli (E. coli) levels due to pollution from primary effluent released in the 1950s from the Amherst Wastewater Treatment Plant (Johnson, J., 2015). Similar to Vibrio cholerae, E.coli spp is a waterborne bacteria caused by fecal contamination. Although most E.coli are natural inhabitants of the gastrointestinal tract, pathogenic serotypes can result in severe complications in vulnerable populations such as kidney failure in children and the elderly adults. (Todar, K., 2012). Lake Warner was chosen for the method development because of its history of E. coli pollution and recreational traffic as well as its general accessibility for study. Designing a methodology for rapid detection of pathogenic bacteria using a metagenomic approach could help improve surveillance for environmental pathogens that pose future epidemic risk. These tools are becoming increasingly important for prediction and response to waterborne diseases as climate impacts increase the frequency, intensity, and duration of extreme weather events that damage critical infrastructure for vulnerable populations (van Aalst, M.K. 2006).

Water For The Future
Author: United Nations Environment Programme. Library and Documentation Centre
Publisher:
Release Date: 2003
Pages: 138
ISBN:
Available Language: English, Spanish, And French
EBOOK SYNOPSIS:

Training Workshop On Environmental Impact Assessment And Evaluation
Author:
Publisher:
Release Date: 1988
Pages:
ISBN:
Available Language: English, Spanish, And French
EBOOK SYNOPSIS:

Threats To Global Water Security
Author: J. Anthony Jones
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
Release Date: 2009-06-17
Pages: 400
ISBN:
Available Language: English, Spanish, And French
EBOOK SYNOPSIS:

The UN designated the decade 2005–2015 as the International Decade for Action – Water for Life. The move was initiated at the third World Water Forum in Kyoto, 2003, and it could prove the most significant and effective outcome of the triennial series of World Water For a yet. Its major aims are: (1) to promote efforts to fulfil recent international commitments, especially in the Millennium Goals, (2) to advance towards a truly integrated, int- national approach to sustainable water management, and (3) to put special emphasis on the role of women in these efforts. Even so, it faces tremendous and, as I write, increasing obstacles. The intense season of hurricanes and tropical storms in 2008 illustrated yet again not only the power of nature, but also the vulnerability of the poorer nations, like Haiti and Jamaica. New Orleans and Texas fared better, not because of the efforts of the International Decade for Natural Disasters (1990–2000) to increase preparedness, but more because the USA had learnt from its own experiences in Hurricane Katrina. The biggest obstacle of all is the burgeoning world population. It took off last century, but it is predicted to reach unimaginable heights this century: at least 10 billion by 2050, maybe 20 billion by 2100. Governments are powerless to halt it, even the Chinese. Achieving water security globally against this backdrop will be a Herculean task.

Introduction To Public Health   E Book
Author: Mary Louise Fleming
Publisher: Elsevier Health Sciences
Release Date: 2012-03-09
Pages: 400
ISBN:
Available Language: English, Spanish, And French
EBOOK SYNOPSIS:

This text introduces students to the core concepts and principles of public health: the nature and scope of public health; its history; an introduction to health determinants and epidemiology; evidence-based practice in public health and understanding public health data plus more.

Water Resources Development In China
Author: Zhengying Qian
Publisher: Science Press
Release Date: 1994
Pages: 697
ISBN:
Available Language: English, Spanish, And French
EBOOK SYNOPSIS:

Improving The Living Environment For A Sustainable Future
Author:
Publisher:
Release Date: 1992
Pages: 53
ISBN:
Available Language: English, Spanish, And French
EBOOK SYNOPSIS:

Addressing China S Water Scarcity
Author:
Publisher: World Bank Publications
Release Date: 2009
Pages: 160
ISBN:
Available Language: English, Spanish, And French
EBOOK SYNOPSIS:

This report reviews China's water scarcity situation, assesses the policy and institutional requirements for addressing it, and recommends key areas for strengthening and reform. It is a synthesis of the main findings and recommendations from analytical work and case studies prepared under the World Bank Analytical and Advisory Assistance (AAA) program entitled 'Addressing China's Water Scarcity: from Analysis to Action.' These studies focus on several strategically important thematic areas for China where additional research was needed, as identified by the research team and advisory group based on a review of pressing issues. These areas are governance, water rights, pricing, ecological compensation, pollution control, and emergency response. The approach has been to evaluate Chinese and international experience to identify policy and institutional factors that have proven effective in promoting the adoption of water conservation and pollution reduction technologies. The research was based on literature reviews, qualitative and quantitative policy analyses, household surveys, field trips, and case studies to develop feasible recommendations for a plan of action based on realities on the ground.

Water Quality International
Author:
Publisher:
Release Date: 1996
Pages:
ISBN:
Available Language: English, Spanish, And French
EBOOK SYNOPSIS:

Water Supply Management
Author: D. Stephenson
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
Release Date: 2012-12-06
Pages: 308
ISBN:
Available Language: English, Spanish, And French
EBOOK SYNOPSIS:

Supply of sufficient clean drinking water is often taken for granted, but it requires a considerable technical and financial effort to ensure reliable and economic water supply. This volume presents an up-to-date overview of water supply management and aims at efficient management of water supply schemes rather than design of new works. Various chapters of the book are devoted to water demands, management of reservoirs and conjunctive use of alternative sources. Asset management and loss control are also considered. Water quality and provision of water to developing communities are also discussed. Water supply management is of concern to developed urban environments as well as developing communities. The book will be equally valuable to the practising water engineer and the newcomer or graduate student in the subject.

Government Reports Announcements   Index
Author:
Publisher:
Release Date: 1982-02
Pages:
ISBN:
Available Language: English, Spanish, And French
EBOOK SYNOPSIS:

Water Resources Research Catalog
Author:
Publisher:
Release Date: 1974
Pages:
ISBN:
Available Language: English, Spanish, And French
EBOOK SYNOPSIS: