emulsions

Emulsions
Author: Tharwat F. Tadros
Publisher: Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co KG
Release Date: 2016-03-21
Pages: 242
ISBN:
Available Language: English, Spanish, And French
EBOOK SYNOPSIS:

Chapter 1 General Introduction Definition of emulsions and the role of the emulsifier. Classification based on the nature of the emulsifier. Classification based on the structure of the system. General instability problems with emulsions : creaming/sedimentation, flocculation, Ostwald ripening, coalescence and phase inversion. Importance of emulsions in various industrial applications. Chapter 2 Thermodynamics of Emulsion Formation and Breakdown Application of the second law of thermodynamics for emulsion formation : Balance of energy and entropy and non-spontaneous formation of emulsions. Breakdown of the emulsion by flocculation and coalescence in the absence of an emulsifier. Role of the emulsifier in preventing flocculation and coalescence by creating an energy barrier resulting from the repulsive energies between the droplets. Chapter 3 Interaction Forces between Emulsion Droplets Van der Waals attraction and its dependence on droplet size, Hamaker constant and separation distance between the droplets. Electrostatic repulsion resulting from the presence of electrical double layers and its dependence on surface (or zeta) potential and electrolyte concentration and valency. Combination of the van der Waals attraction with double layer repulsion and the theory of colloid stability. Steric repulsion resulting from the presence of adsorbed non-ionic surfactants and polymers. Combination of van der Waals attraction with steric repulsion and the theory of steric stabilisation. Chapter 4 Adsorption of Surfactants at the Oil/Water Interface Thermodynamic analysis of surfactant adsorption and the Gibbs adsorption isotherm. Calculation of the amount of surfactant adsorption and area per surfactant molecule at the interface. Experimental techniques for measuring the interfacial tension. Chapter 5 Mechanism of Emulsification and the Role of the Emulsifier Description of the factors responsible for droplet deformation and its break-up. Role of surfactant in preventing coalescence during emulsification. Definition of the Gibbs dilational elasticity and the Marangoni effect in preventing coalescence. Chapter 6 Methods of Emulsification Pipe flow, static mixers and high speed stirrers (rotor-stator mixer). Laminar and turbulent flow. Membrane emulsification. High pressure homogenisers and ultrasonic methods. Chapter 7 Selection of Emulsifiers The hydrophilic-lipophilic-balance (HLB) and its application in surfactant selection. Calculation of HLB numbers and the effect of the nature of the oil phase. The phase inversion temperature (PIT) method for emulsifier selection. The cohesive energy ratio method for emulsifier selection. Chapter 8 Creaming/Sedimentation of Emulsions and its prevention Driving force for creaming/sedimentation: effect of gravity, droplet size and density difference between the oil and continuous phase. Calculation of the rate of creaming/sedimentation in dilute emulsions. Influence of increase of the volume fraction of the disperse phase on the rate of creaming/sedimentation. Reduction of creaming/sedimentation: Balance of the density of the two phases, reduction of droplet size and effect of addition of ''thickeners'. Chapter 9 Flocculation of Emulsions and its Prevention Factors affecting flocculation. Calculation of fast and slow flocculation rate. Definition of stability ratio and its dependence on electrolyte concentration and valency. Definition of the critical coagulation concentration and its dependence on electrolyte valency. Reduction of flocculation by enhancing the repulsive forces. Chapter 10 Ostwald Ripening and its Reduction Factors responsible for Ostwald ripening : difference in solubility between small and large droplets and the Kelvin equation. Calculation of the rate of Ostwald ripening. Reduction of Ostwald ripening by incorporation of a small amount of highly insoluble oil. Reduction of Ostwald ripening by the use of strongly adsorbed polymeric surfactant and enhancement of the Gibbs elasticity. Chapter 11 Emulsion Coalescence and its Prevention Driving force for emulsion coalescence : Thinning and disruption of the liquid film between the droplets. The concept of disjoining pressure for prevention of coalescence. Methods for reduction or elimination of coalescence : Use of mixed surfactant films, use of lamellar liquid crystalline phases and use of polymeric surfactants. Chapter 12 Phase Inversion and its Prevention Distinction between catastrophic and transient phase inversion. Influence of the disperse volume fraction and surfactant HLB number. Explanation of the factors responsible for phase inversion. Chapter 13 Characterisation of Emulsions Measurement of droplet size distribution : Optical microscopy and image analysis. Phase contrast and polarising microscopyDiffraction methods. Confocal laser microscopy. Back scattering methods Chapter 14 Industrial Application of Emulsions 14.1 Application in Pharmacy 14.2 Application in Cosmetics 14.3 Application in Agrochemicals 14.4 Application in Paints 14.5 Application in the Oil Industry

Emulsions
Author: Johan Sjöblom
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
Release Date: 2012-12-06
Pages: 302
ISBN:
Available Language: English, Spanish, And French
EBOOK SYNOPSIS:

Proceedings of the NATO Advanced Research Workshop, Bergen, Norway, June 24-25, 1991

Emulsions
Author: Alexandru Grumezescu
Publisher: Academic Press
Release Date: 2016-06-13
Pages: 768
ISBN:
Available Language: English, Spanish, And French
EBOOK SYNOPSIS:

Emulsions, the third volume of the Nanotechnology in the Food Industry series, is an invaluable resource for anyone in the food industry who needs the most recent information about scientific advances in nanotechnology on this topic. This volume focuses on basic and advanced knowledge about nanoemulsion, and presents an overview of the production methods, materials (solvents, emulsifiers, and functional ingredients), and current analytical techniques that can be used for the identification and characterization of nanoemulsions. The book also discusses the applications of nanoemulsion with special emphasis on systems suitable for utilization within the food industry. This book is useful to a wide audience of food science research professionals and students who are doing research in this field, as well as others interested in recent nanotechnological progress worldwide. Presents fundamentals of nanoemulsions, methods of preparation (high-energy and low-energy techniques), and applications in the food industry Includes research studies of nanoemulsification technology to improve bioavailability of food ingredients and research analysis Offers benefits and methods of risk assessment to ensure food safety Presents cutting-edge encapsulating systems to improve the quality of functional compounds Provides a variety of methods, such as high-shear stirring, high-pressure homogenizers, self-emulsification, phase transitions and phase-inversion, to further research in this field

Crude Oil Waxes  Emulsions  And Asphaltenes
Author: J. R. Becker
Publisher: PennWell Books
Release Date: 1997
Pages: 276
ISBN:
Available Language: English, Spanish, And French
EBOOK SYNOPSIS:

Oilfield waxes and emulsions are petroleum byproducts that increase the costs of production, transportation, and refining by causing equipment failures, plugged pipelines, and decreased throughput. This book is the first of its kind in explaining the physical chemical problems associated with waxes and emulsions and the new technologies for treatment of these problems.

Emulsions  Structure  Stability And Interactions
Author: Dimiter N. Petsev
Publisher: Elsevier
Release Date: 2004-10-14
Pages: 780
ISBN:
Available Language: English, Spanish, And French
EBOOK SYNOPSIS:

Emulsions: Structure, Stability and Interactions is the perfect handbook for scientists looking to obtain up-to-date knowledge about the fundamentals of emulsion science, and those looking to familiarize themselves with the subject in greater detail. As a ‘stand-alone’ source of information, it is also ideal for solving the practical issues encountered daily in the field of emulsion science. While each chapter presents a concise review on a specific topic, the book offers a consistent presentation of the important physical concepts relevant to emulsions. Some of the topics covered include statistical mechanics of fluid interfaces, the structure of fluid interfaces determined by neutron scattering, hydrodynamic interactions and stability of emulsion films, theory of emulsion flocculation, coalescence kinetics of Brownian emulsions, and Brownian dynamics simulation of emulsion stability. Full and comprehensive presentations Rigorous approach to each topic, providing in-depth information Acts as a 'stand-alone' source of information

Asphalt Emulsions
Author: Harold W. Muncy
Publisher: ASTM International
Release Date: 1990
Pages: 111
ISBN:
Available Language: English, Spanish, And French
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Emulsions And Oil Treating Equipment
Author: Maurice Stewart
Publisher: Elsevier
Release Date: 2008-12-30
Pages: 304
ISBN:
Available Language: English, Spanish, And French
EBOOK SYNOPSIS:

The problem of removing water which is emulsified with produced oil has grown more widespread and often times more difficult as producers attempt to access more difficult reserves. This practical guide is designed to help engineers and operators develop a "feel" for selection, sizing, and troubleshooting emulsion equipment. These skills are of vital importance to ensure low operating costs and to meet crude export quality specifications. The book is written for engineers and operators, who need advanced knowledge of the numerous techniques and the equipment used to destabilize and resolve petroleum emulsions problems. In Emulsions and Oil Treating Equipment: Selection, Sizing and Troubleshooting the author provides engineers and operators with a guide to understanding emulsion theory, methods and equipment, and practical design of a treating system. Comprehensive in its scope, the author explains methods such as: demulsifiers, temperature, electrostatics and non-traditional methods of modulated or pulsed voltage control, as well as equipment such as: electrostatic treater (dehydrator), separator, gunbarr heater-treater and free water knockout. Written in a "how to" format, it brings together hundreds of methods, handy formulas, diagrams and tables in one convenient book. Detailed coverage emulsion equipment and removal methods Tips for selecting, sizing, and operating emulsion equipment Overview of emulsion theory and factors affecting treatment methods Packed with equipment diagrams, worked out calculations covers equipment and removal methods

Food Emulsions
Author: Stig Friberg
Publisher: CRC Press
Release Date: 2003-11-04
Pages: 665
ISBN:
Available Language: English, Spanish, And French
EBOOK SYNOPSIS:

Upholding the standards that made previous editions so popular, this reference focuses on current strategies to analyze the functionality and performance of food emulsions and explores recent developments in emulsion science that have advanced food research and development. Written by leading specialists in the field, the Fourth Edition probes the

Submicron Emulsions In Drug Targeting And Delivery
Author: S Benita
Publisher: CRC Press
Release Date: 2019-08-16
Pages: 352
ISBN:
Available Language: English, Spanish, And French
EBOOK SYNOPSIS:

It is anticipated that submicron emulsion and lipid suspension will find numerous and novel medical applications in the near future. The purpose of this multi-authore book is to provide the reader with an up-to-date general overview of submicron emulsions and lipid suspensions (solid lipid nanoparticles) as well as to emphasize the various methods of preparation, characerization, evaluation and potential applications in various therapeutic areas. Leading authors have contributed to this unique book which contains all state of the art and detailed knowledge related to the physico-chemical, pharmaceutical and medical aspects of these most interesting but complex dosage forms, thus making this information easily available to the reader. This book will be of interest to scientists working in the field of drug delivery and targeting in universities as well as in the pharmaceutical, food, cosmetic, veterinary and chemical industries.

Food Emulsions
Author: David Julian McClements
Publisher: CRC Press
Release Date: 2004-12-16
Pages: 632
ISBN:
Available Language: English, Spanish, And French
EBOOK SYNOPSIS:

Food Emulsions: Principles, Practice, and Techniques, Second Edition introduces the fundamentals of emulsion science and demonstrates how this knowledge can be applied to better understand and control the appearance, stability, and texture of many common and important emulsion-based foods. Revised and expanded to reflect recent developments, this s

Emulsions And Nanosuspensions For The Formulation Of Poorly Soluble Drugs
Author: Rainer H. Müller
Publisher: CRC Press
Release Date: 1998
Pages: 396
ISBN:
Available Language: English, Spanish, And French
EBOOK SYNOPSIS:

Explore possible new approaches for overcoming poorly soluble drugs - a challenge to drug formulation work and an increasing problem. Many newly developed drugs are poorly soluble, very often simultaneously in aqueous and in organic media. Emulsions and Nanosuspensions for the Formulation of Poorly Soluble Drugs aims to: review the possibilities, limitations and future perspectives of emulsions as drug carriers considering technology from other than the phamaceutical industry (i.e food industry). show the production technology of nanosuspensions, explain the special dissolution properties (i.e. increased saturation solubility) and increased dissolution velocity (theory), and cover the possible applications. present the theory of high pressure homogenization and high pressure extrusion in dispersion techniques, including examples of applications and size measurements in concentrated dispersions.

Modern Aspects Of Emulsion Science
Author: Bernard P. Binks
Publisher: Royal Society of Chemistry
Release Date: 1998-01-01
Pages: 430
ISBN:
Available Language: English, Spanish, And French
EBOOK SYNOPSIS:

This book presents a comprehensive description of the scientific principles and the very latest advances in research in this important area of surface and colloid science.

Emulsion Science
Author: Fernando Leal-Calderon
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
Release Date: 2007-08-10
Pages: 225
ISBN:
Available Language: English, Spanish, And French
EBOOK SYNOPSIS:

This book gives an overview of the most recent advances in emulsion science, from the preparation to the destruction of these materials. This book is intended for a large audience, from undergraduate students to senior scientists. A progressive and didactic approach is proposed for that purpose. The concepts presented should provide a useful guidance for formulating and controlling the lifetime of emulsion at laboratory and industrial scales. For easy comprehension, the text is illustrated by more than 70 figures. This book is a new edition of the one published in the series "Springer Tracts in Modern Physics (vol. 181)". The main difference is a more didactic approach which will allow the non-specialist reader to capture the essential concepts. We shall also incorporate the very last research results (solid-stabilized emulsions, metastability) and novel applications (Biotechnology).

Pharmaceutical Emulsions And Suspensions
Author: Françoise Nielloud
Publisher: CRC Press
Release Date: 2000-02-25
Pages: 660
ISBN:
Available Language: English, Spanish, And French
EBOOK SYNOPSIS:

Analyzes construction of experiments, focusing on variables, models, matrices, and reproducibility. This timely reference systematically examines the basic concepts and theoretical issues, methodologies for experiment and measurement, and practical health applications of emulsions and dispersions-describing formulation problems and identifying potential carriers for the delivery or targeting of new drugs. Evaluates anionic, cationic, and nonionic surfactants as dispersing, emulsifying, foaming, penetrating, and wetting agents. Written by more than 20 international researchers, Pharmaceutical Emulsions and Suspensions discusses uses of macroemulsions and (submicron) microemulsions illuminates delivery devices such as microparticles, nanospheres, liposomes, and mixed micelles investigates the application of self-emulsifying drug delivery systems (SEDDS) introduces techniques for increasing drug solubility with nanosuspensions addresses stabilization, flocculation, and coagulation problems in pharmaceutical and cosmetic suspensions surveys drug delivery by way of dermatological, follicular, and ocular routes explains the pharmacodynamics, bioavailability, and pharmacokinetics in the drug formulation development process compares and contrasts monomeric and micellar adsorption at oil-water interfaces and more! Containing over 1800 references, tables, equations, drawings, and micrographs, Pharmaceutical Emulsions and Suspensions is an ideal resource for pharmacists; physical, surface, colloid, cosmetic, food, and agricultural chemists; and upper-level undergraduate and graduate students in these disciplines.

Emulsions
Author: Paul Becher
Publisher: Krieger Publishing Company
Release Date: 1977
Pages: 440
ISBN:
Available Language: English, Spanish, And French
EBOOK SYNOPSIS:

A great introduction to the study and fomulation of emulsions, this book discusses background theory, physical properties of emulsions, theories of emulsion stability and instability, emulsifying agents and their chemistry, formulation procedures and techniques, and industrial applications of emulsification and demulsification.

Encyclopedic Handbook Of Emulsion Technology
Author: Johan Sjoblom
Publisher: CRC Press
Release Date: 2001-03-16
Pages: 760
ISBN:
Available Language: English, Spanish, And French
EBOOK SYNOPSIS:

A discussion of fundamental characteristics, theories and applications for liquid-liquid colloidal dispersions. It profiles experimental and traditional measurement techniques in a variety of emulsified systems, including rheology, nuclear magnetic resonance, dielectric spectroscopy, microcalorimetry, video enhanced microscopy, and conductivity.

Topics On Diffusion In Emulsions
Author: M. Nichelatti
Publisher: World Scientific
Release Date: 1994
Pages: 134
ISBN:
Available Language: English, Spanish, And French
EBOOK SYNOPSIS:

This book describes some mathematical and physical aspects of emulsion behavior, starting from the fundamental theories of diffusion, Brownian movement and sedimentation of particles in a fluid (Chapters 1, 2 and 3 respectively). After a brief exposition of the basic concepts in discrete state space processes (Chapter 4), Chapter 5 shows some aspects of colloid aggregation phenomena presenting a new model to describe this process and uses the methods previously expounded. Chapters 6 and 7 discuss some of the most important data about the general and electrical properties of emulsions.The major emphasis is on the philosophy of stochastic process theory as a useful tool for the theoretical study of colloid and emulsion properties.

Encyclopedia Of Emulsion Technology
Author: Daniel Schuster
Publisher: CRC Press
Release Date: 1996-06-12
Pages: 376
ISBN:
Available Language: English, Spanish, And French
EBOOK SYNOPSIS:

This volume extends the discussions of basic theory and applications featured in volumes 1-3 of this series. It includes details on emulsion stability and emulsification; an examination on the effect of added polymers on emulsion rheology; findings on the role of repulsive forces in aqueous solubility, micelle stability, micro-emulsion formation, and phase separation; and a model for microemulsions.

Emulsions  Foams  And Thin Films
Author: K.L. Mittal
Publisher: CRC Press
Release Date: 2000-05-16
Pages: 520
ISBN:
Available Language: English, Spanish, And French
EBOOK SYNOPSIS:

This volume presents the acomplishments of over 85 internationlly renowned scientists whose work was influenced by Professor Wasan's groundbreaking research on interfacial phenomena at The Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago.

Foams And Emulsions
Author: J.F. Sadoc
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
Release Date: 2013-03-09
Pages: 596
ISBN:
Available Language: English, Spanish, And French
EBOOK SYNOPSIS:

A general and introductory survey of foams, emulsions and cellular materials. Foams and emulsions are illustrations of some fundamental concepts in statistical thermodynamics, rheology, elasticity and the physics and chemistry of divided media and interfaces. They also give rise to some of the most beautiful geometrical shapes and tilings, ordered or disordered. The chapters are grouped into sections having fairly loose boundaries. Each chapter is intelligible alone, but cross referencing means that the few concepts that may not be familiar to the reader can be found in other chapters in the book. Audience: Research students, researchers and teachers in physics, physical chemistry, materials science, mechanical engineering and geometry.