dna methylation and complex human disease

DNA Methylation And Complex Human Disease
Author: Michel Neidhart
Publisher: Academic Press
Release Date: 2015-08-11
Pages: 552
ISBN:
Available Language: English, Spanish, And French
EBOOK SYNOPSIS:

DNA Methylation and Complex Human Disease reviews the possibilities of methyl-group-based epigenetic biomarkers of major diseases, tailored epigenetic therapies, and the future uses of high-throughput methylome technologies. This volume includes many pertinent advances in disease-bearing research, including obesity, type II diabetes, schizophrenia, and autoimmunity. DNA methylation is also discussed as a plasma and serum test for non-invasive screening, diagnostic and prognostic tests, as compared to biopsy-driven gene expression analysis, factors which have led to the use of DNA methylation as a potential tool for determining cancer risk, and diagnosis between benign and malignant disease. Therapies are at the heart of this volume and the possibilities of DNA demethylation. In cancer, unlike genetic mutations, DNA methylation and histone modifications are reversible and thus have shown great potential in the race for effective treatments. In addition, the authors present the importance of high-throughput methylome analysis, not only in cancer, but also in non-neoplastic diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis. Discusses breaking biomarker research in major disease families of current health concern and research interest, including obesity, type II diabetes, schizophrenia, and autoimmunity Summarizes advances not only relevant to cancer, but also in non-neoplastic disease, currently an emerging field Describes wholly new concepts, including the linking of metabolic pathways with epigenetics Provides translational researchers with the knowledge of both basic research and clinic applications of DNA methylation in human diseases

Mitochondrial Diseases
Author: Eylem Taskin
Publisher: BoD – Books on Demand
Release Date: 2018-08-29
Pages: 496
ISBN:
Available Language: English, Spanish, And French
EBOOK SYNOPSIS:

Mitochondria are crucial organelles for any cell type. Mitochondria take responsibility for not only energy production but also regulation of cell death, also called apoptosis; calcium storage; and heat production. Therefore, mitochondrial disease is implicated in the mode of action of many harmful factors for cells such as drugs and environmental contaminants, dysfunction of the oxygen transport system, malnutrition, intense exercise, and genetic variations. This book presents up-to-date knowledge about mitochondrial disease and its complex relation to some diseases such as cardiac failure, cancer, and Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases. This book will, therefore, be essential for readers who are interested in life sciences, especially in medicine.

Gene Expression And Regulation In Mammalian Cells
Author: Fumiaki Uchiumi
Publisher: BoD – Books on Demand
Release Date: 2018-02-21
Pages: 334
ISBN:
Available Language: English, Spanish, And French
EBOOK SYNOPSIS:

"Central dogma" was presented by Dr. Francis Crick 60 years ago. The information of nucleotide sequences on DNAs is transcribed into RNAs by RNA polymerases. We learned the mechanisms of how transcription determines function of proteins and behaviour of cells and even how it brings appearances of organisms. This book is intended for scientists and medical researchers especially who are interested in the relationships between transcription and human diseases. This volume consists of an introductory chapter and 14 chapters, divided into 4 parts. Each chapter is written by experts in the basic scientific field. A collection of articles presented by active and laboratory-based investigators provides recent advances and progresses in the field of transcriptional regulation in mammalian cells.

Personalized Epigenetics
Author: Trygve Tollefsbol
Publisher: Academic Press
Release Date: 2015-04-28
Pages: 610
ISBN:
Available Language: English, Spanish, And French
EBOOK SYNOPSIS:

Personalized Epigenetics discusses the core translatability of epigenetics to health management of individuals who have unique variations in their epigenetic signatures that can guide both disorder and disease prevention and therapy. The book details inter-individual variability in the major epigenetic process in humans consisting of DNA methylation, histone modifications, and noncoding RNA, and the diagnostic, prognostic, and therapeutic potential of the field, it also reviews the impact of the environment on epigenetic variations among individuals and the role of pharmacology and drug development in personalized epigenetics. Most importantly, the text covers personalized epigenetics from a disease-oriented perspective, presenting chapters that provide advances in widespread disorders or diseases, including diabetes, cancer, autoimmune disorders, obesity, cardiovascular diseases, neurological disorders, and pain management. Discusses the core translatability of epigenetics to health management of individuals who have unique variations in their epigenetic signatures Details inter-individual variability in the major epigenetic process in humans consisting of DNA methylation, histone modifications, and noncoding RNA, and the consequent diagnostic, prognostic and therapeutic potential of the field Reviews the impact of the environment on epigenetic variations among individuals and the roles of pharmacology and drug development Devotes several chapters to the advances made in widespread disorders or diseases, including diabetes, cancer, autoimmune disorders, obesity, cardiovascular diseases, neurological disorders, and pain management

Epigenetics
Author: C. David Allis
Publisher: CSHL Press
Release Date: 2007-01
Pages: 502
ISBN:
Available Language: English, Spanish, And French
EBOOK SYNOPSIS:

The regulation of gene expression in many biological processes involves epigenetic mechanisms. In this new volume, 24 chapters written by experts in the field discuss epigenetic effects from many perspectives. There are chapters on the basic molecular mechanisms underpinning epigenetic regulation, discussion of cellular processes that rely on this kind of regulation, and surveys of organisms in which it has been most studied. Thus, there are chapters on histone and DNA methylation, siRNAs and gene silencing; X-chromosome inactivation, dosage compensation and imprinting; and discussion of epigenetics in microbes, plants, insects, and mammals. The last part of the book looks at how epigenetic mechanisms act in cell division and differentiation, and how errors in these pathways contribute to cancer and other human diseases. Also discussed are consequences of epigenetics in attempts to clone animals. This book is a major resource for those working in the field, as well as being a suitable text for advanced undergraduate and graduate courses on gene regulation.

Epigenetics In Biology And Medicine
Author: Manel Esteller
Publisher: CRC Press
Release Date: 2008-09-17
Pages: 312
ISBN:
Available Language: English, Spanish, And French
EBOOK SYNOPSIS:

Anomalous epigenetic patterns touch many areas of study including biomedical, scientific, and industrial. With perspectives from international experts, this resource offers an all-inclusive overview of epigenetics, which bridge DNA information and function by regulating gene expression without modifying the DNA sequence itself. Epigenetics, in its

DNA Methylation  Development  Genetic Disease And Cancer
Author: Walter Doerfler
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
Release Date: 2006-09-02
Pages: 284
ISBN:
Available Language: English, Spanish, And French
EBOOK SYNOPSIS:

It has become apparent that the genomes of many organisms are characterized by unique patterns of DNA methylation which can differ from genome segment to genome segment and cell type to cell type. These patterns can be instrumental in determining cell type and function. Thus, it is not surprising that studies on the role of DNA methylation now occupy center stage in many fields of biology and medicine such as developmental biology, genetic imprinting, genetic disease, tumor biology, gene therapy, cloning of organisms and others. Once again, basic research in molecular biology has provided the essential foundation for investigations of biomedical problems.

Human Molecular Genetics 3
Author: T. Strachan
Publisher: Garland Science
Release Date: 2004
Pages: 674
ISBN:
Available Language: English, Spanish, And French
EBOOK SYNOPSIS:

Professors Tom Strachan & Andrew Read awarded the Education Award 2007 of the ESHG for their outstanding contribution to the dispersal of knowledge of modern human molecular genetics among students and professionals. Following the completion of the Human Genome Project the content and organization of the third edition of Human Molecular Genetics has been thoroughly revised. * Part One (Chapters 1-7) covers basic material on DNA structure and function, chromosomes, cells and development, pedigree analysis and the basic techniques used in the laboratory. * Part Two (Chapters 8-12) discusses the various genome sequencing projects and the insights they provide into the organisation, expression, variation and evolution of our genome. * Part Three (Chapters 13-18) focuses on mapping, identifying and diagnosing the genetic causes of mendelian and complex diseases and cancer. * Part Four (Chapters 19-21) looks at the wider horizons of functional genomics, proteomics, bioinformatics, animal models and therapy. There are new chapters on cells and development and on functional genomics. The sections on complex diseases have been completely rewritten and reorganized, as has the chapter on Genome Projects. Other changes include a new section on molecular phylogenetics (Chapter 12) and the introduction of 'Ethics Boxes' to discuss some of the implications of the new knowledge. Virtually every page has been revised and updated to take account of the stunning developments of the past four years since the publication of the last edition of Human Molecular Genetics. Features: * Integration of Human Genome Project data throughout the book * Two new chapters 'Cells and Development' (Chapter 3) and 'Beyond the Genome Project: Functional Genomics, Proteomics and Bioinformatics' (Chapter 19) * Completely rewritten and reorganised coverage of complex disease genetics * Increased emphasis on gene function and on applications of genetic knowledge, including ethical issues * More prominence given to novel approaches to treating disease, such as cell-based therapies, pharmacogenomics, and personalised medicine * Special topic boxes that include detailed coverage of ethical, legal and social issues, including eugenics, genetic testing and discrimination, germ-line gene therapy and genetic enhancement, and human cloning * Contains two indices: a general index and one that contains names of diseases and disorders Supplements: Art of HMG3 (CD-ROM) 0-8153-4183-0: £34.00

Epigenetic Gene Expression And Regulation
Author: Suming Huang
Publisher: Academic Press
Release Date: 2015-10-19
Pages: 482
ISBN:
Available Language: English, Spanish, And French
EBOOK SYNOPSIS:

Epigenetic Gene Expression and Regulation reviews current knowledge on the heritable molecular mechanisms that regulate gene expression, contribute to disease susceptibility, and point to potential treatment in future therapies. The book shows how these heritable mechanisms allow individual cells to establish stable and unique patterns of gene expression that can be passed through cell divisions without DNA mutations, thereby establishing how different heritable patterns of gene regulation control cell differentiation and organogenesis, resulting in a distinct human organism with a variety of differing cellular functions and tissues. The work begins with basic biology, encompasses methods, cellular and tissue organization, topical issues in epigenetic evolution and environmental epigenesis, and lastly clinical disease discovery and treatment. Each highly illustrated chapter is organized to briefly summarize current research, provide appropriate pedagogical guidance, pertinent methods, relevant model organisms, and clinical examples. Reviews current knowledge on the heritable molecular mechanisms that regulate gene expression, contribute to disease susceptibility, and point to potential treatment in future therapies Helps readers understand how epigenetic marks are targeted, and to what extent transgenerational epigenetic changes are instilled and possibly passed onto offspring Chapters are replete with clinical examples to empower the basic biology with translational significance Offers more than 100 illustrations to distill key concepts and decipher complex science

Epigenetics In Cardiac Disease
Author: Johannes Backs
Publisher: Springer
Release Date: 2016-11-21
Pages: 316
ISBN:
Available Language: English, Spanish, And French
EBOOK SYNOPSIS:

This book describes important advances in our understanding of how environmental conditions affect cardiac gene expression through epigenetic mechanisms. Further, it discusses the roles of chromatin modifications (in particular DNA methylation and histone modifications) and of chromatin regulators in the context of cardiac diseases. The book provides readers with an overview of our current understanding of epigenetic regulation in the heart, and will stimulate further research in this exciting field. Edited and written by internationally respected experts, it addresses the needs of professors, students and researchers working in the fields of cardiac biology and epigenetics.

Beyond Our Genes
Author: Raffaele Teperino
Publisher: Springer Nature
Release Date: 2020-01-24
Pages: 266
ISBN:
Available Language: English, Spanish, And French
EBOOK SYNOPSIS:

The genotype/phenotype dichotomy is being slowly replaced by a more complex relationship whereby the majority of phenotypes arise from interactions between one’s genotype and the environment in which one lives. Interestingly, it seems that not only our lives, but also our ancestors’ lives, determine how we look. This newly recognized form of inheritance is known as (epi)genetic, as it involves an additional layer of information on top of the one encoded by the genes. Its discovery has constituted one of the biggest paradigm shifts in biology in recent years. Understanding epigenetic factors may help explain the pathogenesis of several complex human diseases (such as diabetes, obesity and cancer) and provide alternative paths for disease prevention, management and therapy. This book introduces the reader to the importance of the environment for our own health and the health of our descendants, sheds light on the current knowledge on epigenetic inheritance and opens a window to future developments in the field.

The Epigenetics Of Autoimmunity
Author: Rongxin Zhang
Publisher: Academic Press
Release Date: 2018-04-25
Pages: 432
ISBN:
Available Language: English, Spanish, And French
EBOOK SYNOPSIS:

The Epigenetics of Autoimmunity covers a topic directly related to translational epigenetics. Via epigenetic mechanisms, a number of internal and external environmental risk factors, including smoking, nutrition, viral infection and the exposure to chemicals, could exert their influence on the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases. Such factors could impact the epigenetic mechanisms, which, in turn, build relationship with the regulation of gene expression, and eventually triggering immunologic events that result in instability of immune system. Since epigenetic aberrations are known to play a key role in a long list of human diseases, the translational significance of autoimmunity epigenetics is very high. To bridge the gap between environmental and genetic factors, over the past few years, great progress has been made in identifying detailed epigenetic mechanisms for autoimmune diseases. Furthermore, with rapid advances in technological development, high-throughput screening approaches and other novel technologies support the systematic investigations and facilitate the epigenetic identification. This book covers autoimmunity epigenetics from a disease-oriented perspective and several chapters are presented that provide advances in wide-spread disorders or diseases such as systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), rheumatoid arthritis (RA), multiple sclerosis (MS), type 1 diabetes (T1DM), systemic sclerosis (SSc), primary Sjögren's syndrome (pSS) and autoimmune thyroid diseases (AITDs). These emerging epigenetic studies provide new insights into autoimmune diseases, raising great expectations among researchers and clinicians. This seminal book on this topic comprehensively covers the most recent advances in this exciting and rapidly developing new science. They might reveal not only new clinical biomarkers for diagnosis and disease progression, but also novel targets for potential epigenetic therapeutic treatment. Provides the accurate and cutting-edge information on autoimmunity epigenetics Wide coverage appeals to those interested in fundamental epigenetics and inheritance to those with more clinical interests Critical reviews of the mean of deriving and analysing autoimmunity epigenetics information as well as its translational potential Up-to-date coverage of emerging topics in autoimmunity epigenetics

Handbook Of Epigenetics
Author: Trygve Tollefsbol
Publisher: Academic Press
Release Date: 2010-11-21
Pages: 638
ISBN:
Available Language: English, Spanish, And French
EBOOK SYNOPSIS:

Epigenetics is considered by many to be the "new genetics" because of the overwhelming evidence of the contribution of non-genetic factors such as nutrition, environment, and chemical exposure on gene expression. The effects of epigenetics are vast, including tissue/organ regeneration, X-chromosome inactivation, and stem cell differentiation and genomic imprinting and aging. Aberrations of epigenetics influence many diseases for which clinical intervention is already in place, and many novel epigenetic therapies for cancer, immune disorders, neurological and metabolic disorders, and imprinting diseases are on the horizon. This comprehensive collection of reviews written by leaders in the field of epigenetics provides a broad view of this important and evolving topic. From molecular mechanisms and epigenetic technology to discoveries in human disease and clinical epigenetics, the nature and applications of the science will be presented for those with interests ranging from the fundamental basis of epigenetics to therapeutic interventions for epigenetic-based disorders. Contributions by leading international investigators involved in molecular research and clinical and therapeutic applications Integrates methods and biological topics with basic and clinical discoveries Includes coverage of new topics in epigenetics such as prions, regulation of long-term memory by epigenetics, metabolic aspects of epigenetics, and epigenetics of neuronal disorders

Stress  Genetics  Epigenetics And Genomics
Author: George Fink
Publisher: Academic Press
Release Date: 2020-11-01
Pages: 344
ISBN:
Available Language: English, Spanish, And French
EBOOK SYNOPSIS:

This fourth volume in the Handbook of Stress series, Stress: Genetics, Epigenetics and Genomics, deals with the influence that genetics, epigenetics, and genomics have on the effects of and responses to stress. Chapters refer to epigenetic mechanisms that involve DNA methylation, histone modification, and/or noncoding RNA-associated gene activation or silencing. There is also coverage of epigenetic mechanisms in stress-related transgenerational transmission of characteristics, and how these may help explain heritability in some complex human diseases. The Handbook of Stress series, comprised of self-contained volumes that each focus on a specific stress area, covers the significant advances made since the publication of Elsevier’s Encyclopedia of Stress (2000 and 2007). Volume 4 is ideal for graduate students, post-doctoral fellows, faculty and clinicians interested in stress genetics, epigenetics and genomics involved in neuroendocrinology, neuroscience, biomedicine, endocrinology, psychology, psychiatry and the social sciences. Articles carefully selected by eminent stress researchers and prepared by contributors representing outstanding scholarship in the field, with each chapter fully vetted for reliable expert knowledge Richly illustrated with explanatory figures and tables Each chapter includes a boxed “Key points call out section Affordably priced, self-contained volume for readers specifically interested in stress genetics and epigenetics, removing the need to purchase the whole Handbook series

Epigenetics In Health And Disease
Author: Igor Kovalchuk
Publisher: FT Press
Release Date: 2012
Pages: 598
ISBN:
Available Language: English, Spanish, And French
EBOOK SYNOPSIS:

"After reviewing the field's history and context, the authors introduce and explain each key epigenetic mechanism. Next, they extensively discuss the roles these mechanisms may play in inheritance, development, health and disease, behavior, evolution, ecology, and the interactions of individual organisms with their environments"--Cover, p. [4].

Patho Epigenetics Of Disease
Author: Janos Minarovits
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
Release Date: 2012-06-14
Pages: 466
ISBN:
Available Language: English, Spanish, And French
EBOOK SYNOPSIS:

In multicellular organisms the establishment, maintenance, and programmed alterations of cell-type specific gene expression patterns are regulated by epigenetic mechanisms. Thus, epigenetic alterations (DNA methylation, DNA associated Polycomb-Trithorax protein complexes, histone modifications) ensure the unique transcriptional activity and phenotypic diversity of diploid cells that carry identical or nearly identical DNA sequences. Because DNA methyltransferase I (DNMT1) associates with replication foci during S phase and prefers hemimethylated DNA as a substrate, DNMT1 ensures the clonal propagation of cytosine methylation patterns (maintenance methylation). Thus, DNA methylation may provide a memory function by helping progeny cells to “remember” their proper cellular identity. An alternative system of epigenetic memory, the Polycomb and Trithorax groups of protein complexes, that may operate both independently from and in concert with DNA methylation, ensures the heritable regulation of gene expression via modification of histone tails. The complex interplay of epigenetic regulatory mechanisms permits both the dynamic modulation of gene expression and the faithful transmission of gene expression patterns to each progeny cell upon division. These carefully orchestrated processes can go wrong, however, resulting in epigenetic reprogramming of the cells that may manifest in pathological changes, as it was first realized during the studies of epigenetic alterations in malignant tumors. By now it became a well established fact that not only genetic changes, but also the disruption of epigenetic regulation can result in carcinogenesis and tumor progression. Scientists working in other fields soon followed the pioneering work of cancer researchers, and revealed that epigenetic dysregulation forms the basis of a wide spectrum of human diseases.

Epigenetics Of Aging
Author: Trygve O. Tollefsbol
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
Release Date: 2009-11-11
Pages: 469
ISBN:
Available Language: English, Spanish, And French
EBOOK SYNOPSIS:

Recent studies have indicated that epigenetic processes may play a major role in both cellular and organismal aging. These epigenetic processes include not only DNA methylation and histone modifications, but also extend to many other epigenetic mediators such as the polycomb group proteins, chromosomal position effects, and noncoding RNA. The topics of this book range from fundamental changes in DNA methylation in aging to the most recent research on intervention into epigenetic modifications to modulate the aging process. The major topics of epigenetics and aging covered in this book are: 1) DNA methylation and histone modifications in aging; 2) Other epigenetic processes and aging; 3) Impact of epigenetics on aging; 4) Epigenetics of age-related diseases; 5) Epigenetic interventions and aging: and 6) Future directions in epigenetic aging research. The most studied of epigenetic processes, DNA methylation, has been associated with cellular aging and aging of organisms for many years. It is now apparent that both global and gene-specific alterations occur not only in DNA methylation during aging, but also in several histone alterations. Many epigenetic alterations can have an impact on aging processes such as stem cell aging, control of telomerase, modifications of telomeres, and epigenetic drift can impact the aging process as evident in the recent studies of aging monozygotic twins. Numerous age-related diseases are affected by epigenetic mechanisms. For example, recent studies have shown that DNA methylation is altered in Alzheimer’s disease and autoimmunity. Other prevalent diseases that have been associated with age-related epigenetic changes include cancer and diabetes. Paternal age and epigenetic changes appear to have an effect on schizophrenia and epigenetic silencing has been associated with several of the progeroid syndromes of premature aging. Moreover, the impact of dietary or drug intervention into epigenetic processes as they affect normal aging or age-related diseases is becoming increasingly feasible.

Epigenetics In Human Disease
Author: Trygve Tollefsbol
Publisher: Academic Press
Release Date: 2012-07-26
Pages: 592
ISBN:
Available Language: English, Spanish, And French
EBOOK SYNOPSIS:

Epigenetics is one of the fastest growing fields of sciences, illuminating studies of human diseases by looking beyond genetic make-up and acknowledging that outside factors play a role in gene expression. The goal of this volume is to highlight those diseases or conditions for which we have advanced knowledge of epigenetic factors such as cancer, autoimmune disorders and aging as well as those that are yielding exciting breakthroughs in epigenetics such as diabetes, neurobiological disorders and cardiovascular disease. Where applicable, attempts are made to not only detail the role of epigenetics in the etiology, progression, diagnosis and prognosis of these diseases, but also novel epigenetic approaches to the treatment of these diseases. Chapters are also presented on human imprinting disorders, respiratory diseases, infectious diseases and gynecological and reproductive diseases. Since epigenetics plays a major role in the aging process, advances in the epigenetics of aging are highly relevant to many age-related human diseases. Therefore, this volume closes with chapters on aging epigenetics and breakthroughs that have been made to delay the aging process through epigenetic approaches. With its translational focus, this book will serve as valuable reference for both basic scientists and clinicians alike. Comprehensive coverage of fundamental and emergent science and clinical usage Side-by-side coverage of the basis of epigenetic diseases and their treatments Evaluation of recent epigenetic clinical breakthroughs

Environmental Epigenomics In Health And Disease
Author: Randy L Jirtle
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
Release Date: 2013-05-16
Pages: 302
ISBN:
Available Language: English, Spanish, And French
EBOOK SYNOPSIS:

There are now compelling human epidemiological and animal experimental data that indicate the risk of developing adult-onset complex diseases and neurological disorders are influenced by persistent epigenetic adaptations in response to prenatal and early postnatal exposures to environmental factors. Epigenetics refers to heritable changes in gene function that occur without a change in the sequence of the DNA. The main components of the epigenetic code are DNA methylation, histone modifications, and non-coding RNAs. The epigenetic programs are established as stem cell differentiate during embryogenesis, and they are normally faithfully reproduced during mitosis. Moreover, they can also be maintained during meiosis, resulting in epigenetic transgenerational disease inheritance, and also potentially introducing phenotypic variation that is selected for in the evolution of new species. The objective of this book is to provide evidence that environmental exposures during early development can alter the risk of developing medical conditions, such as asthma, autism, cancer, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, obesity, and schizophrenia later in life by modifying the epigenome.

Epigenetics
Author: Lyle Armstrong
Publisher: Garland Science
Release Date: 2013-11-20
Pages: 300
ISBN:
Available Language: English, Spanish, And French
EBOOK SYNOPSIS:

The concept of epigenetics has been known about since the 1940s, but it is only in the last 10 years that research has shown just how wide ranging its effects are. It is now a very widely-used term, but there is still a lot of confusion surrounding what it actually is and does. Epigenetics is a new textbook that brings together the structure and machinery of epigenetic modification, how epigenetic modification controls cellular functions, and the evidence for the relationship between epigenetics and disease. It is a valuable source of information about all aspects of the subject for undergraduate students, graduate students, and professionals.