At least eighty percent of the mass of the universe consists of some material which, unlike ordinary matter, neither emits nor absorbs light. This book collects key papers related to the discovery of this astonishing fact and its profound implications for astrophysics, cosmology, and the physics of elementary particles. The book focuses on the likely possibility that the dark matter is composed of an as yet undiscovered elementary particle, and examines the boundaries of our present knowledge of the properties such a particle must possess.
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Most astronomers and physicists now believe that the matter content of the Universe is dominated by dark matter: hypothetical particles which interact with normal matter primarily through the force of gravity. Though invisible to current direct detection methods, dark matter can explain a variety of astronomical observations. This book describes how this theory has developed over the past 75 years, and why it is now a central feature of extragalactic astronomy and cosmology. Current attempts to directly detect dark matter locally are discussed, together with the implications for particle physics. The author comments on the sociology of these developments, demonstrating how and why scientists work and interact. Modified Newtonian Dynamics (MOND), the leading alternative to this theory, is also presented. This fascinating overview will interest cosmologists, astronomers and particle physicists. Mathematics is kept to a minimum, so the book can be understood by non-specialists.
If standard gravitational theory is correct, then most of the matter in the universe is in an unidentified form which does not emit enough light to have been detected by current instrumentation. This review volume is the extended editon of the lectures given in the 4th Jerusalem Winter School of Theoretical Physics, with new materials added in. It devoted to the discussion of the so-called "missing matter" problem in the universe - dark matter and dark energy. The goal of this volume is to make current research work on unseen matter accessible to students of faculties without prior experience in this area. Due to the pedagogical nature of the notes and the intense discussions between students and the lecturers, the written lectures included in this volume often contain techniques and explanations not found in more formal journal publications.
This book shows how modern cosmology has led to the idea of dark matter in the universe, and presents a new theory to explain it.
Dark matter, the invisible substance that constitutes the bulk of all matter in the universe, remains one of science's greatest mysteries. But what if it actually is nothing more than ordinary matter purposely hidden from our view? What if we are only allowed to see a small fraction of the stars in our galaxy, because the vast majority of star systems are teeming with aliens who wish to remain unseen? Marc Zemin, a brilliant student of astrophysics, is the first human to ever stumble upon this startling secret, when his experiments with wormhole travel cause aliens to land on Earth and whisk him away into space. To his astonishment, the aliens want his help in fighting a colossal galactic war that is rapidly spiraling out of control. But as he struggles to survive from battle to battle across the farthest reaches of the galaxy, he begins to uncover a horrifying conspiracy at play, striving to keep the warring civilizations in continuous conflict with each other. A desperate race against time ensues, as he and a handful of newfound alien friends try to stop the war and confront this mysterious, powerful force bent on destroying all life in the galaxy. But any hope of their success surprisingly appears to hinge on just one thing - whether or not Marc has the strength to overcome his own demons and face the shattering truth about who he really is. "A sci-fi debut that shows great potential." - Kirkus Discoveries
A mindbending, relentlessly surprising thriller from the author of the bestselling Wayward Pines trilogy. “Are you happy with your life?” Those are the last words Jason Dessen hears before the masked abductor knocks him unconscious. Before he awakens to find himself strapped to a gurney, surrounded by strangers in hazmat suits. Before a man Jason’s never met smiles down at him and says, “Welcome back, my friend.” In this world he’s woken up to, Jason’s life is not the one he knows. His wife is not his wife. His son was never born. And Jason is not an ordinary college physics professor, but a celebrated genius who has achieved something remarkable. Something impossible. Is it this world or the other that’s the dream? And even if the home he remembers is real, how can Jason possibly make it back to the family he loves? The answers lie in a journey more wondrous and horrifying than anything he could’ve imagined—one that will force him to confront the darkest parts of himself even as he battles a terrifying, seemingly unbeatable foe. Dark Matter is a brilliantly plotted tale that is at once sweeping and intimate, mind-bendingly strange and profoundly human—a relentlessly surprising science-fiction thriller about choices, paths not taken, and how far we’ll go to claim the lives we dream of.
'a most useful book on a most interesting subject.' The Observatory
Rob Marshal is accused of murdering his friend, Petrosian who, shortly before his death, had given him the only copy of his theory of a hitherto unsuspected physical property of the universe. By various means, Marshal is lead unknowingly into discovering these properties and more at first hand. During the course of his adventures he meets with treachery, kidnappings and further murders; he travels through parts of the solar system and to remote areas of the earth. He becomes acquainted with events of the past and age-old aspects of human nature: love and hate, envy, greed and revenge. Can he survive the threats of death pitted against him by nature and man? Can he rescue his beloved? Can he prove his innocence? Can he come to terms with the strange physical nature of the universe into which he is thrown? The answers could not be anticipated.
This book brings together reviews from leading international authorities on the developments in the study of dark matter and dark energy, as seen from both their cosmological and particle physics side. Studying the physical and astrophysical properties of the dark components of our Universe is a crucial step towards the ultimate goal of unveiling their nature. The work developed from a doctoral school sponsored by the Italian Society of General Relativity and Gravitation. The book starts with a concise introduction to the standard cosmological model, as well as with a presentation of the theory of linear perturbations around a homogeneous and isotropic background. It covers the particle physics and cosmological aspects of dark matter and (dynamical) dark energy, including a discussion of how modified theories of gravity could provide a possible candidate for dark energy. A detailed presentation is also given of the possible ways of testing the theory in terms of cosmic microwave background, galaxy redshift surveys and weak gravitational lensing observations. Included is a chapter reviewing extensively the direct and indirect methods of detection of the hypothetical dark matter particles. Also included is a self-contained introduction to the techniques and most important results of numerical (e.g. N-body) simulations in cosmology. " This volume will be useful to researchers, PhD and graduate students in Astrophysics, Cosmology Physics and Mathematics, who are interested in cosmology, dark matter and dark energy.
The visible universe is a small perturbation on the material universe. Zwicky and Sinclair Smith in the 1930s gave evidence of invisible mass in the Coma and Virgo Clusters of Galaxies. Better optical data has only served to confound their critics and the X-ray data confirms that the gravitational potentials are many times larger than those predicted on the basis of the observed stars. Dynamical analyses of individual galaxies have found that significant extra mass is needed to explain their rotational velocities. On much larger scales, tens of megaparsecs, there is suggestive evidence that there is even more mass per unit luminosity. What is this non-luminous stuff of which the universe is made'? How much of it is there? Need there be only one kind of stuff? There are three basic possi bili ties:- all of it is ordinary (baryonic) matter, all of it is some other kind of (non-baryonic) matter, or some of it is baryonic and some is non-baryonic.