chordate origins and evolution

Chordate Origins And Evolution
Author: Noriyuki Satoh
Publisher: Academic Press
Release Date: 2016-07-14
Pages: 220
ISBN:
Available Language: English, Spanish, And French
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Chordate Origins and Evolution: The Molecular Evolutionary Road to Vertebrates focuses on echinoderms (starfish, sea urchins, and others), hemichordates (acorn worms, etc.), cephalochordates (lancelets), urochordates or tunicates (ascidians, larvaceans and others), and vertebrates. In general, evolution of these groups is discussed independently, on a larger scale: ambulacrarians (echi+hemi) and chordates (cephlo+uro+vert). Until now, discussion of these topics has been somewhat fragmented, and this work provides a unified presentation of the essential information. In the more than 150 years since Charles Darwin proposed the concept of the origin of species by means of natural selection, which has profoundly affected all fields of biology and medicine, the evolution of animals (metazoans) has been studied, discussed, and debated extensively. Following many decades of classical comparative morphology and embryology, the 1980s marked a turning point in studies of animal evolution, when molecular biological approaches, including molecular phylogeny (MP), molecular evolutionary developmental biology (evo-devo), and comparative genomics (CG), began to be employed. There are at least five key events in metazoan evolution, which include the origins of 1) diploblastic animals, such as cnidarians; 2) triploblastic animals or bilaterians; 3) protostomes and deuterostomes; 4) chordates, among deuterostomes; and 5) vertebrates, among chordates. The last two have received special attention in relation to evolution of human beings. During the past two decades, great advances have been made in this field, especially in regard to molecular and developmental mechanisms involved in the evolution of chordates. For example, the interpretation of phylogenetic relationships among deuterostomes has drastically changed. In addition, we have now obtained a large quantity of MP, evo-devo, and CG information on the origin and evolution of chordates. Covers the most significant advances in this field to give readers an understanding of the interesting biological issues involved Provides a unified presentation of essential information regarding each phylum and an integrative understanding of molecular mechanisms involved in the origin and evolution of chordates Discusses the evolutionary scenario of chordates based on two major characteristic features of animals—namely modes of feeding (energy sources) and reproduction—as the two main forces driving animal evolution and benefiting dialogue for future studies of animal evolution

Chordate
Author: Pranveer Singh
Publisher: Nova Science Pub Incorporated
Release Date: 2015-03-01
Pages: 310
ISBN:
Available Language: English, Spanish, And French
EBOOK SYNOPSIS:

This book is structured into eight chapters, starting from introductory chapters throwing light on basic evolutionary principles to different aspects of chordate evolution. This book is written to accommodate the needs of diverse readers that range from undergraduate and postgraduate students to research scholars. This book spans diverse but related disciplines that range from morphology, anatomy, taxonomy, physiology, evolution and diversity and has updates from the latest in chordate research.

Chordate Evolution
Author: M. A. Subramanian
Publisher: MJP Publisher
Release Date: 2019-06-12
Pages: 239
ISBN:
Available Language: English, Spanish, And French
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Introduction Fossils in the Study of Chordate Evolution Geological Time Origin of Chordates Evolution of Ostracoderms (Agnatha—Jawless Vertebrates)Evolution of Primitive Jawed Vertebrates Evolution of Fishes Evolution of Amphibians Evolution of Reptiles Dinosaurs Golden Age of Reptiles Evolution of Birds Ratitae Evolution of Mammals Monotremesmarsupials Human Evolution Consequences of chordate evolution Appendix Glossary References Index

Muscles Of Chordates
Author: Rui Diogo
Publisher: CRC Press
Release Date: 2018-04-17
Pages: 650
ISBN:
Available Language: English, Spanish, And French
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Chordates comprise lampreys, hagfishes, jawed fishes, and tetrapods, plus a variety of more unfamiliar and crucially important non-vertebrate animal lineages, such as lancelets and sea squirts. This will be the first book to synthesize, summarize, and provide high-quality illustrations to show what is known of the configuration, development, homology, and evolution of the muscles of all major extant chordate groups. Muscles as different as those used to open the siphons of sea squirts and for human facial communication will be compared, and their evolutionary links will be explained. Another unique feature of the book is that it covers, illustrates, and provides detailed evolutionary tables for each and every muscle of the head, neck and of all paired and median appendages of extant vertebrates.

Origin And Evolution Of The Vertebrate Telencephalon  With Special Reference To The Mammalian Neocortex
Author: Francisco Aboitiz
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
Release Date: 2007-06-20
Pages: 121
ISBN:
Available Language: English, Spanish, And French
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How could a structure as complex as the vertebrate brain develop from the simplest multicellular animals? Natural selection offers an impeccable mechanism for the gradual transformation of species, but even Darwin sometimes expressed doubts about the origin of highly complex structures. Following an approach that has been termed "developmental evolutionary genetics," this book seeks to establish a correspondence between embryological processes and the phylogenetic history of an organism.

Evolutionary Developmental Biology Of Invertebrates 6
Author: Andreas Wanninger
Publisher: Springer
Release Date: 2015-08-11
Pages: 214
ISBN:
Available Language: English, Spanish, And French
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This multi-author, six-volume work summarizes our current knowledge on the developmental biology of all major invertebrate animal phyla. The main aspects of cleavage, embryogenesis, organogenesis and gene expression are discussed in an evolutionary framework. Each chapter presents an in-depth yet concise overview of both classical and recent literature, supplemented by numerous color illustrations and micrographs of a given animal group. The largely taxon-based chapters are supplemented by essays on topical aspects relevant to modern-day EvoDevo research such as regeneration, embryos in the fossil record, homology in the age of genomics and the role of EvoDevo in the context of reconstructing evolutionary and phylogenetic scenarios. A list of open questions at the end of each chapter may serve as a source of inspiration for the next generation of EvoDevo scientists. Evolutionary Developmental Biology of Invertebrates is a must-have for any scientist, teacher or student interested in developmental and evolutionary biology as well as in general invertebrate zoology. This chapter is dedicated to the Deuterostomia, comprising the Echinodermata and Hemichordata (usually grouped together as the Ambulacraria) as well as the Cephalochordata and the Tunicata.

Heads  Jaws  And Muscles
Author: Janine M. Ziermann
Publisher: Springer
Release Date: 2019-01-23
Pages: 303
ISBN:
Available Language: English, Spanish, And French
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The vertebrate head is the most complex part of the animal body and its diversity in nature reflects a variety of life styles, feeding modes, and ecological adaptations. This book will take you on a journey to discover the origin and diversification of the head, which evolved from a seemingly headless chordate ancestor. Despite their structural diversity, heads develop in a highly conserved fashion in embryos. Major sensory organs like the eyes, ears, nose, and brain develop in close association with surrounding tissues such as bones, cartilages, muscles, nerves, and blood vessels. Ultimately, this integrated unit of tissues gives rise to the complex functionality of the musculoskeletal system as a result of sensory and neural feedback, most notably in the use of the vertebrate jaws, a major vertebrate innovation only lacking in hagfishes and lampreys. The cranium subsequently further diversified during the major transition from fishes living in an aquatic environment to tetrapods living mostly on land. In this book, experts will join forces to integrate, for the first time, state-of-the-art knowledge on the anatomy, development, function, diversity, and evolution of the head and jaws and their muscles within all major groups of extant vertebrates. Considerations about and comparisons with fossil taxa, including emblematic groups such as the dinosaurs, are also provided in this landmark book, which will be a leading reference for many years to come.

Principles Of Developmental Genetics
Author: Sally A. Moody
Publisher: Academic Press
Release Date: 2014-09-02
Pages: 784
ISBN:
Available Language: English, Spanish, And French
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Providing expert coverage of all major events in early embryogenesis and the organogenesis of specific systems, and supplemented with representative clinical syndromes, Principles of Developmental Genetics, Second Edition discusses the processes of normal development in embryonic and prenatal animals, including humans. The new edition of this classic work supports clinical researchers developing future therapies with its all-new coverage of systems biology, stem cell biology, new technologies, and clinical disorders. A crystal-clear layout, exceptional full-color design, and bulleted summaries of major takeaways and clinical pathways assist comprehension and readability of the highly complex content. All-new coverage of systems biology and stem cell biology in context of evolving technologies places the work squarely on the modern sciences Chapters are complemented with a bulleted summary for easy digestion of the major points, with a clinical summary for therapeutic application Clinical highlights provides a bridge between basic developmental biology and clinical sciences in embryonic and prenatal syndromes

Origin And Evolution Of Vertebrates
Author: Richa Arora
Publisher:
Release Date: 2004-01-01
Pages: 270
ISBN:
Available Language: English, Spanish, And French
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Vertebrates (Chordates) Have Several Diagnostic Characters Which Re Absolutely Distinctive, Separating Them Sharply From All Forms Of Life. The Main Contrast Between Invertebrate And Vertebrate Animals Seems To Be That, As A Whole The Former Are Static Organisms With Little Or No Power Of Locomotion, While The Latter Are Essentially Dynamic.This Book Presents A Scientific Story Of Origin And Evolution Of Vertebrates. The Information Is Grouped Under Thirteen Chapters.ContentsOrigin Of Vertebrates; Origin Of Land Vertebrates; Origin Of Reptiles; Origin Of Dinosaurs; Origin Of Birds; Origin Of Mammals; Proboscideans; Horses; Camels; South American Mammal Radiation; Prosimians; The Evolution Of Man; The Gradual Appearance Of Man; Etc.

Origin And Evolution Of Biodiversity
Author: Pierre Pontarotti
Publisher: Springer
Release Date: 2018-08-27
Pages: 361
ISBN:
Available Language: English, Spanish, And French
EBOOK SYNOPSIS:

The book includes 19 selected contributions presented at the 21st Evolutionary Biology Meeting, which took place in Marseille in September 2017. The chapters are grouped into the following five categories: · Genome/Phenotype Evolution · Self/Nonself Evolution · Origin of Biodiversity · Origin of Life · Concepts The annual Evolutionary Biology Meetings in Marseille serve to gather leading evolutionary biologists and other scientists using evolutionary biology concepts, e.g. for medical research. The aim of these meetings is to promote the exchange of ideas to encourage interdisciplinary collaborations. Offering an up-to-date overview of recent findings in the field of evolutionary biology, this book is in invaluable source of information for scientists, teachers and advanced students.

Telling The Evolutionary Time
Author: Philip C J Donoghue
Publisher: CRC Press
Release Date: 2003-12-16
Pages: 296
ISBN:
Available Language: English, Spanish, And French
EBOOK SYNOPSIS:

Determining the precise timing for the evolutionary origin of groups of organisms has become increasingly important as scientists from diverse disciplines attempt to examine rates of anatomical or molecular evolution and correlate intrinsic biological events to extrinsic environmental events. Molecular clock analyses indicate that many major groups

Origin And Evolution Of The Human Dentition
Author: William King Gregory
Publisher: Рипол Классик
Release Date: 1922
Pages: 548
ISBN:
Available Language: English, Spanish, And French
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Animal Evolution
Author: Maximilian J. Telford
Publisher: Oxford University Press
Release Date: 2009-08-13
Pages: 245
ISBN:
Available Language: English, Spanish, And French
EBOOK SYNOPSIS:

Describing and understanding the evolution of the diversity of bodyplans is a major goal of evolutionary biology. Taking a modern, integrated approach to this question, a group of leading researchers describe how modern techniques and disciplines have been combined, resulting in a dramatic renaissance in the study of animal evolution.

Evolution Of Nervous Systems  Non Mammalian Vertebrates
Author: Jon H. Kaas
Publisher: Academic Press
Release Date: 2007
Pages: 2300
ISBN:
Available Language: English, Spanish, And French
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Chordomas
Author: M. Necmettin Pamir
Publisher: Thieme
Release Date: 2017-01-03
Pages: 256
ISBN:
Available Language: English, Spanish, And French
EBOOK SYNOPSIS:

A rare form of cancer, chordomas are among the most difficult tumors to treat, requiring highly specialized training and surgical expertise. Although generally slow-growing, chordomas present resection challenges due to their proximity to critical structures including the spinal cord, brainstem, nerves, and arteries. Written by an impressive cadre of internationally-renowned experts, this textbook is the most current, concise, and definitive resource on diagnosis and management of this complex pathology. Acclaimed surgeons from Brazil, Canada, Japan, Turkey, the USA, and the UK are contributors. The book starts with a historical overview, epidemiology, molecular pathogenesis, cytogenetics, local invasion and metastasis, and pathology. A thorough discussion covers diagnostic radiological and radionuclide imaging such as MRI, PET; SPECT, PET-CT, and PET-MRI, and clinical traits of skull base and spinal chordomas as defined by imaging modalities. Subsequent chapters explore decision making including selecting the most optimal techniques, surgical procedures, specialized topics, and new horizons in chordoma treatment. Key Highlights Anterior and anterolateral approaches to the clivus The use of endoscopy and intraoperative assistive technologies Midline subfrontal, middle fossa, extended petrosal, and transcondylar approaches Craniospinal fusion techniques following resection Surgery for spinal chordomas from the cervical to the sacral region Special topics such as radiation, proton beam therapy, Gamma-Knife radiosurgery, and pediatric chordomas and chondrosarcomas This is an essential text for neurosurgeons, orthopedic spine surgeons, otolaryngologists, and radiation oncologists. Read and learn from innovators who have mastered the latest state-of-the-art treatment methodologies for chordomas.

The Neural Crest In Development And Evolution
Author: Brian K. Hall
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
Release Date: 1999-07-30
Pages: 313
ISBN:
Available Language: English, Spanish, And French
EBOOK SYNOPSIS:

A discussion of the neural crest and neural crest cells, dealing with their discovery, their embryological and evolutionary origins, their cellular derivatives - in both agnathan and jawed vertebrates or gnathostomes - and the broad topics of migration and differentiation in normal development. The book also considers what goes wrong when development is misdirected by mutations, or by exposure of embryos to exogenous agents such as drugs, alcohol, or excess vitamin A, and includes discussions of tumours and syndromes and birth defects involving neural crest cells.

Chordata   Zoology Optional   UPSC   CSE IAS IFoS   Exams Exclusive
Author: Dheeraj Sharma
Publisher: DHEERAJ SHARMA
Release Date:
Pages: 179
ISBN:
Available Language: English, Spanish, And French
EBOOK SYNOPSIS:

This Book/Notes will Cover "Zoology (Optional)" Chordata . These notes divided according to class taken by Dheeraj Sharma on Exams Exclusive. Zoology is one of the optional subjects offered by the UPSC for the civil services mains exam. It is a reasonably popular optional subject among life sciences students who wish to pursue the IAS/IFoS exam. Zoology is the scientific study of animals, including animal anatomy, physiology, genetics, biochemistry, evolution, ecology, conservation and behaviour. It is an interesting subject and one that has great potential for the UPSC exam. However, it requires hard work and sincere answer writing practice out of students. Non-Chordates : https://bit.ly/Book1-Zoo4ias Chordates : 1. Class 27th | Protochordata – Classification https://youtu.be/_xDt26SvIQg 2. Class 28th | Protochordata - Origin of Chordates & Branchiostoma https://youtu.be/kwK4udMJXLo 3. Class 29th | Protochordata – Herdmania https://youtu.be/cdhdTWAY2Fk 4. Class 30th | Pisces – Respiration https://youtu.be/YNcASovIxKA 5. Class 31st | Pisces – Locomotion https://youtu.be/tpbbU5Nayos 6. Class 32nd | Pisces – Migration https://youtu.be/9rBbw0yrz3c 7. Class 33rd | Amphibia – Origin https://youtu.be/fEWQce_b4VA 8. Class 34th | Amphibia - Parental care https://youtu.be/zm_DPkPUYOo 9. Class 35th | Amphibia - Anura (Parental care) & Paedomorphosis https://youtu.be/bi6ytg4pfgU 10. Class 36th | Reptilia - Origin & Skull Types https://youtu.be/GVZIGnOc8VY 11. Class 37th | Reptilia - Status of Sphenodon https://youtu.be/a6Fsw97dWBM 12. Class 38th | Reptilia - Status of Crocodilia https://youtu.be/nyMdOH8y1no 13. Class 39th | Aves – Classification https://youtu.be/diiq5WBhYSY 14. Class 40th | Aves - Origin of Birds https://youtu.be/CVMTpA8toYM 15. Class 41st | Aves - Flight Adaptation https://youtu.be/cPJ0B9rICBg 16. Class 42nd | Aves – Migration https://youtu.be/DjXpMA6cRqM 17. Class 43rd | Mammals – Classification https://youtu.be/FNdtkD1Vr4k 18. Class 44th | Mammals - Origin & Dentition https://youtu.be/Oao61olC5t0 19. Class 45th | Mammals - Egg laying https://youtu.be/6dtj4sorWOU 20. Class 46th | Mammals – Pouched https://youtu.be/i-T04zqSo1E 21. Class 47th | Mammals – Aquatic https://youtu.be/g1Y8mv23eAA 22. Class 48th | Mammals - Primates (Prosimians) https://youtu.be/wtpFQi6cI0w 23. Class 49th | Mammals - Primates (Anthropoidea) https://youtu.be/VPGO-Jc4De8 24. Class 50th | Mammals - Endocrine Glands | Part - 1st https://youtu.be/E5LZNerWs8Q 25. Class 51st | Mammals - Endocrine Glands | Part - 2nd https://youtu.be/pxu3fg7W4QU

Origin And Evolution Of New Gene Functions
Author: Manyuan Long
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
Release Date: 2003-07-31
Pages: 199
ISBN:
Available Language: English, Spanish, And French
EBOOK SYNOPSIS:

Although interest in evolutionary novelties can be that these different mechanisms cooperate in the mak traced back to the time of Darwin, the appreciation ing of new genes. In the second phase of new gene evolution, conventional models of new gene evolution, and systematical experimental pursuit of the origin and evolution of new gene functions did not appear for example by gene duplication, held that the muta until the early years of last decade. Since the 1970s, tions fixed in the early stages of the new genes are Susumu Ohno, Walter Gilbert, and others from the assumed to be neutral or nearly neutral. However, it area of evolutionary genetics have made pioneer ef appears that the force of Darwinian positive selection has been detectably strong from the outset in avail forts to elaborate possibilities for major biological mechanisms, for example, gene duplication and exon able population genetic studies of young genes created through the process of exon recombination. This may shuffling, by which new gene functions could arise. However, the problem of new gene evolution did not account for a common phenomenon in phylogenetic catch significant attention among biologists generally analyses of genes with changed functions: the early even recently. One of the reasons was the lack of ex stages of such genes are usually associated with accel perimental or observational systems for investigating erated substitution rates. Nonetheless, a more general factual details of the 'birth' process of new genes.

Evolutionary Mechanisms Of Defense Reactions
Author: Václav Větvička
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
Release Date: 1998
Pages: 196
ISBN:
Available Language: English, Spanish, And French
EBOOK SYNOPSIS:

This book presents an evolutionary approach to defense mechanisms of all living organisms. The results achieved in developmental and comparative immunology are among the most interesting data in immunology. These results have great impact on our understanding of fundamental problems of the pathology of the human immune system. In addition, the health questions related to commercially important animals such as shrimps or fish have become a serious problem. At the same time, the field of evolutionary immunology provides not only inspiration for further investigation in biomedicine, and also a number of results applicable in clinical and commercial practice. This book evaluates the advantages and limitations of studying the development of defense reactions. In addition to reviewing the major and crucial achievements of the past, the book offers a comprehensive state-of-the-art treatise focused primarily on the latest experiments described in the last few years. The well-defined mixture of analyses of older and new data makes this book a valuable reference for all scientists and scholars seeking detailed information on this important field even without preliminary knowledge. The book is geared towards scientists involved in immunology, cell biology, developmental biology, immunology and cancer research. Moreover, the work will be particularly beneficial for teachers of biology and/or developmental courses as well as for graduate and undergraduate students. Contents: Animals at the cell-aggregate body organization Porifera Humoral immunity Cellular immunity Conclusions References Diblastic animals Colenterata Humoral immunity Cellular immunity The immune phenomena characteristics Conclusions References Protostomes Annelida The evolutionary significance of metamery and the coelom Adaptive humoral immunity Cellular immunity Phagocytosis Conclusions References Arthropoda References Chelicerata The cells and structures enganged in the immune reactions References Crustacea Hemopoitic structures References Insecta Blood cells Inducible antibacterial peptides Cellular immunology Phagocytosis References Mollusca The hemopoietic tissues and organs Conclusions References Deuterostomes Echinodermata The coelomic derivatives of echinoderms and their possible role in immunity Conclusions References Chordates Urochordata The anatomical features of ascididans in regard to their possible immune significance Conclusions References Vertebrates Agnatha Origins The immunocompetent tissues and organs The possible thymus equivalent lyphoid structures Humoral Immunity Specific humoral immunity Cellular immunity References Chondrichthyes Origins The tymus Development of lymphohemopoiesis in elasmobranchs Specific humoral immunity Cellular immunity Specific cellular immunity Conclusions References Osteichthyes Origins The tymus Cells B Lymphocytes MHC Antigens Cytokines Cellular cooperation Conclusions References General conclusions References Subject index

Biology
Author: Vernon L. Avila
Publisher: Jones & Bartlett Learning
Release Date: 1995
Pages: 979
ISBN:
Available Language: English, Spanish, And French
EBOOK SYNOPSIS:

Biological Sciences