Beginning in the 1840s, black men and women heard the call to go west, migrating to California in search of gold, independence, freedom, and land to call their own. By the mid-1850s, a lively African American community had taken root in San Francisco. Churches and businesses were established, schools were built, newspapers were published, and aid societies were formed. For the next century, the history of San Francisco's African American community mirrored the nation's slow progress toward integration with triumphs and setbacks depicted in images of schools, churches, protest movements, business successes, and political struggles.
african americans of san francisco
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The war industries associated with World War II brought unparalleled employment opportunities for African Americans in San Francisco, a city whose African American population grew by over 650% between 1940 and 1945. With this population increase came an increase in racial discrimination directed at African Americans, primarily in the employment and housing sectors. In San Francisco, most African Americans were effectively barred from renting or buying homes in all but a few neighborhoods and, except for the well-educated and lucky, employment opportunities were open in near-entry levels for white-collar positions or in unskilled and semi-skilled blue-collar positions. As San Francisco's African American population expanded, civil rights groups formed coalitions to picket and protest, thereby effectively expanding job opportunities and opening the housing market for African American San Franciscans. This book describes and explains some of the obstacles and triumphs faced and achieved in areas such as housing, employment, education and civil rights. It reaches across disciplines from African American studies and history into urban studies and sociology.
|Book Title||: Perceptions of African American College Students in San Francisco Bay Area Community Colleges on Their Developmental Training to Participate in Civic Engagement During High School|
|Author||: Melvin Davis|
|Release Date||: 2018|
|Available Language||: English, Spanish, And French|
The democratic practice of representative government in the United States is supposed to represent and protect its citizens. Since the United States abolished legalized slavery with the 13th Amendment in 1865, individual states have made many attempts to impede the civil rights and voting rights of African American citizens. Several pieces of legislation were designed to protect citizens, such as the Civil Rights act of 1964 and the Voting Rights Act of 1965. In addition to overt legislated actions to thwart voting rights, the 26th Amendment of 1971 afforded citizens at least 18-years old the right to vote. Studies, however, have shown that the 18- to 24-year-old voting block consistently lags other cohorts in exercising the right to vote. Those studies presumed a flaw in the youths and rarely fully imagine systemic issues. The purpose of this study was to view youth voting through the lenses of critical race theory and neoliberalism to gain insights into how students from San Francisco (SF) Bay Area community colleges perceived their development during high school influenced their engagement in civic activity. The researcher evaluated answers from the position that suppressed youth voting and moreover, suppressed African American voting, is systemic in nature. This quantitative study was conducted with 84 anonymous SF Bay Area students who participated in an online survey that asked for their perceptions of which social structures-schools, families, community organizations, or religious organizations-most iii and least prepared them for civic duty such as voting. The study explored trust in social structures and asked specifically how well high school prepared them for voting in the 2016 presidential election. Thematically, the study uncovered that the most effective source of voting training was from family members, followed by peers. High schools, the primary source of all other education, rated well below families in preparation for voting and in influence on how to evaluate candidates. Other social structures-religious organizations and community organizations-essentially did not serve as factors in the development of surveyed youths. Those two groups represented an opportunity to connect with younger voters if they are employed as a resource. This study was not designed to uncover how specific high schools conducted civic education; that is a potential topic for future research. What was clear is that the State of California, the largest, most diverse state in the United States, places little emphasis on schools teaching civics, given that it is a 1-semester requirement for graduation in comparison to mathematics, which has a minimum of 3 years or English, which has a minimum of 4 years required for graduation. The study results showed that due to the influences of critical race theory and neoliberalism, the actual incentive to improve knowledge and participation from young African American voters is limited, and potentially counter to the goals of those holding political power.
There is an ongoing debate as to whether African American Studies is a discipline, or multidisciplinary or interdisciplinary field. Some scholars assert that African American Studies use a well-defined common approach in examining history, politics, and the family in the same way as scholars in the disciplines of economics, sociology, and political science. Other scholars consider African American Studies multidisciplinary, a field somewhat comparable to the field of education in which scholars employ a variety of disciplinary lenses-be they anthropological, psychological, historical, etc., --to study the African world experience. In this model the boundaries between traditional disciplines are accepted, and researches in African American Studies simply conduct discipline based an analysis of particular topics. Finally, another group of scholars insists that African American Studies is interdisciplinary, an enterprise that generates distinctive analyses by combining perspectives from different traditional disciplines and synthesizing them into a unique framework of analysis.
2011 Edition. From the Magnificent Mile to the magnificent lakefront, Chicago has it all! This pocket guidebook will walk you through the best the Windy City has to offer. Color-coded, numbered entries in the text are keyed to full-color area maps in each chapter. ''Top Picks'' direct you to not-to-be-missed attractions. Full-color spot illustrations throughout liven the text. 10 easy-to-use maps. Author Margaret Littman contributes to Moon Metro Chicago, Real City Chicago, and Chicago SHOPS.
San Francisco is a relatively young city with a well-deserved reputation as a food destination, situated near lush farmland and a busy port. San Francisco's famous restaurant scene has been the subject of books but the full complexity of the city's culinary history is revealed here for the first time. This food biography presents the story of how food traveled from farms to markets, from markets to kitchens, and from kitchens to tables, focusing on how people experienced the bounty of the City by the Bay.
Reclaiming San Francisco is an anthology of fresh appraisals of the contrarian spirit of the city-a spirit "resistant to authority or control." The official story of San Francisco is one of progress, development, and growth. But there are other, unofficial, San Francisco stories, often shrouded in myth and in danger of being forgotten, and they are told here: stories of immigrants and minorities, sailors and waterfront workers, and poets, artists, and neighborhood activists-along with the stories of speculators, land-grabbers, and the land itself that need to be told differently. Contributors include historians, geographers, poets, novelists, artists, art historians, photographers, journalists, citizen activists, an architect, and an anthropologist. Passionate about the city, they want San Francisco to be more itself and less like the city of office towers, chain stores, theme parks, and privatized public services and property that appears to be its immediate fate. San Francisco is not alone in being transformed according to the dictates of the global economy. But San Franciscans are unusual in their readiness to confront the corporate agenda for their city.
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