Designed as an undergraduate-level textbook in Chemical Engineering, this student-friendly, thoroughly class-room tested book, now in its second edition, continues to provide an in-depth analysis of chemical engineering thermodynamics. The book has been so organized that it gives comprehensive coverage of basic concepts and applications of the laws of thermodynamics in the initial chapters, while the later chapters focus at length on important areas of study falling under the realm of chemical thermodynamics. The reader is thus introduced to a thorough analysis of the fundamental laws of thermodynamics as well as their applications to practical situations. This is followed by a detailed discussion on relationships among thermodynamic properties and an exhaustive treatment on the thermodynamic properties of solutions. The role of phase equilibrium thermodynamics in design, analysis, and operation of chemical separation methods is also deftly dealt with. Finally, the chemical reaction equilibria are skillfully explained. Besides numerous illustrations, the book contains over 200 worked examples, over 400 exercise problems (all with answers) and several objective-type questions, which enable students to gain an in-depth understanding of the concepts and theory discussed. The book will also be a useful text for students pursuing courses in chemical engineering-related branches such as polymer engineering, petroleum engineering, and safety and environmental engineering. New to This Edition • More Example Problems and Exercise Questions in each chapter • Updated section on Vapour–Liquid Equilibrium in Chapter 8 to highlight the significance of equations of state approach • GATE Questions up to 2012 with answers
a textbook of chemical engineering thermodynamics
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Introduction to Chemical Engineering Thermodynamics, Fifth Edition presents a thorough exposition of the principles of thermodynamics and details their application to chemical processes. Newly revised and completely up-to-date, this best-selling book also equips the reader with an adequate foundation for subsequent self-instruction. Learner-friendly, the fifth edition of Introduction to Chemical Engineering Thermodynamics includes over 115 worked examples, as well as 8 helpful appendices. This classic textbook is written not only for students, but also for practicing engineers.
Introduction to Chemical Engineering Thermodynamics, 7/e, presents comprehensive coverage of the subject of thermodynamics from a chemical engineering viewpoint. The text provides a thorough exposition of the principles of thermodynamics and details their application to chemical processes. The chapters are written in a clear, logically organized manner, and contain an abundance of realistic problems, examples, and illustrations to help students understand complex concepts. New ideas, terms, and symbols constantly challenge the readers to think and encourage them to apply this fundamental body of knowledge to the solution of practical problems. The comprehensive nature of this book makes it a useful reference both in graduate courses and for professional practice. The seventh edition continues to be an excellent tool for teaching the subject of chemical engineering thermodynamics to undergraduate students.
The Clear, Well-Organized Introduction to Thermodynamics Theory and Calculations for All Chemical Engineering Undergraduate Students This text is designed to make thermodynamics far easier for undergraduate chemical engineering students to learn, and to help them perform thermodynamic calculations with confidence. Drawing on his award-winning courses at Penn State, Dr. Themis Matsoukas focuses on “why” as well as “how.” He offers extensive imagery to help students conceptualize the equations, illuminating thermodynamics with more than 100 figures, as well as 190 examples from within and beyond chemical engineering. Part I clearly introduces the laws of thermodynamics with applications to pure fluids. Part II extends thermodynamics to mixtures, emphasizing phase and chemical equilibrium. Throughout, Matsoukas focuses on topics that link tightly to other key areas of undergraduate chemical engineering, including separations, reactions, and capstone design. More than 300 end-of-chapter problems range from basic calculations to realistic environmental applications; these can be solved with any leading mathematical software. Coverage includes • Pure fluids, PVT behavior, and basic calculations of enthalpy and entropy • Fundamental relationships and the calculation of properties from equations of state • Thermodynamic analysis of chemical processes • Phase diagrams of binary and simple ternary systems • Thermodynamics of mixtures using equations of state • Ideal and nonideal solutions • Partial miscibility, solubility of gases and solids, osmotic processes • Reaction equilibrium with applications to single and multiphase reactions
The aim of this contemporary textbook is to show students that thermodynamics is a useful tool, not just a series of theoretical exercises. Written in a conversational style, the text presents the second law in a totally new manner--there is no reliance on statistical arguments; instead it is developed as a natural consequence of physical experience. Students are not required to write complex, iterative computer programs to solve phase equilibrium problems--techniques are presented which enable use of readily available math packages. The book also explores electrochemical systems such as batteries and fuel cells. Included in the extensive amount of examples are those which demonstrate the use of thermodynamics in practical design situations.
This book offers a full account of thermodynamic systems in chemical engineering. It provides a solid understanding of the basic concepts of the laws of thermodynamics as well as their applications with a thorough discussion of phase and chemical reaction equilibria. At the outset the text explains the various key terms of thermodynamics with suitable examples and then thoroughly deals with the virial and cubic equations of state by showing the P-V-T (pressure, molar volume and temperature) relation of fluids. It elaborates on the first and second laws of thermodynamics and their applications with the help of numerous engineering examples. The text further discusses the concepts of exergy, standard property changes of chemical reactions, thermodynamic property relations and fugacity. The book also includes detailed discussions on residual and excess properties of mixtures, various activity coefficient models, local composition models, and group contribution methods. In addition, the text focuses on vapour-liquid and other phase equilibrium calculations, and analyzes chemical reaction equilibria and adiabatic reaction temperature for systems with complete and incomplete conversion of reactants. key Features Includes a large number of fully worked-out examples to help students master the concepts discussed. Provides well-graded problems with answers at the end of each chapter to test and foster students’ conceptual understanding of the subject. The total number of solved examples and end-chapter exercises in the book are over 600. Contains chapter summaries that review the major concepts covered. The book is primarily designed for the undergraduate students of chemical engineering and its related disciplines such as petroleum engineering and polymer engineering. It can also be useful to professionals. The Solution Manual containing the complete worked-out solutions to chapter-end exercises and problems is available for instructors.
If a Writer would know how to behave himself with relation to Posterity; let him consider in old Books, what he finds, that he is glad to know; and what Omissions he most laments. Jonathan Swift This book emerges from a long story of teaching. I taught chemical engineering thermodynamics for about ten years at the University of Naples in the 1960s, and I still remember the awkwardness that I felt about any textbook I chose to consider-all of them seemed to be vague at best, and the standard of logical rigor seemed immensely inferior to what I could find in books on such other of the students in my first class subjects as calculus and fluid mechanics. One (who is now Prof. F. Gioia of the University of Naples) once asked me a question which I have used here as Example 4. 2-more than 20 years have gone by, and I am still waiting for a more intelligent question from one of my students. At the time, that question compelled me to answer in a way I didn't like, namely "I'll think about it, and I hope I'll have the answer by the next time we meet. " I didn't have it that soon, though I did manage to have it before the end of the course.
PREFACE “No happy phrase of ours is ever quite original with us; there is nothing of our own in it except some slight change born of our temperament, character, environment, teachings and associations.” Mark Twain This textbook is designed for chemical engineering students from the sophomore level to the first year of graduate school. The approach blends molecular perspective with principles of thermodynamics to build intuitive reasoning regarding the behavior of species in chemical engineering processes and formulations. The molecular perspective is represented by descriptions encompassing: the relation of kinetic energy to temperature; the origin and consequences of intermolecular potentials; molecular acidity and basicity; methods used to incorporate molecular properties into molecular simulations; and the impact of molecular properties on macroscopic energy and entropy. This text is distinctive in making molecular perspectives accessible at the introductory level and connecting properties with practical implications. This second edition offers enhanced coverage of biological, pharmaceutical, and electrolyte applications including osmotic pressure, solid solubility, and coupled reactions. Throughout the text, topics are organized to implement hierarchical instruction with increasing levels of detail. Content requiring deeper levels of theory is clearly delineated in separate sections and chapters. Less complex empirical model approaches have been moved forward to provide introductory practice with concepts and to provide motivation for understanding models more fully. The approach also provides more instructor flexibility in selecting topics to cover. Learning objectives have been clearly stated for each chapter along with chapter summaries including “important equations” to enhance student focus. Every chapter includes practice problems with complete solutions available online, as well as numerous homework problems. Online supplements include practice tests spanning many years, coursecasts describing difficult concepts or how to use computational tools, ConcepTests to quickly check comprehension, and objective lists that can be customized for greater detail. We also recommend the related resources available at the www.learncheme.com. Unique features of the text include the level of pedagogical development of excess function models and electrolytes. For mixture models, the key assumptions and derivation steps are presented, stimulating readers to consider how the molecular phenomena are represented. For electrolytes and biological systems, the text makes connections between pH and speciation and provides tools for rapidly estimating concentrations of dissociated species. We emphasize speciation and problem solving in this introduction, instead of focusing on advanced theories of electrolyte activity. The material is written at an intermediate level to bridge students from the introductions in chemistry to the more complex models of electrolytes provided by process simulators. We have created a number of homework problems with many variants, intending that different parts can be assigned to different classes or groups, not intending that each student work all parts. NOTES TO STUDENTS Thermodynamics is full of terminology and defined properties. Please note that the textbook provides a glossary and a summary of notation just before Unit I. Also consider the index a resource. We consider the examples to be an integral part of the text, and we use them to illustrate important points. Examples are often cross-referenced and are therefore listed in the table of contents. We enclose important equations in boxes and we use special notation by equation numbers: (*) means that the equation assumes temperature-independent heat capacity; (ig) means the equation is limited to ideal gases. We include margin notes to highlight important concepts or supplemental information. Computer programs facilitate the solutions to homework problems, but they should not be used to replace an understanding of the material. Computers are tools for calculating, not for thinking. To evaluate your understanding, we recommend that you know how to solve the problem by hand calculations. If you do not understand the formulas in the programs it is a good indication that you need to do more studying before using the program so that the structure of the program makessense. It is also helpful to rework example problems from the text using the software. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS As the above quote from Mark Twain alludes, we are indebted to many others, from informal hallway conversations at meetings, to e-mail messages with suggestions and errata, to classroom testing. In many cases, we are merely the conveyors of others’ suggestions. In particular, for the first edition, Dave Hart, Joan Brennecke, Mike Matthews, Bruce Poling, Ross Taylor, and Mark Thies worked with early versions of the text. We have benefited from classroom testing of the second edition by Margot Vigeant, Victor Vasquez, and Joan Brennecke. We have benefited from reviews by Keith Johnston, Ram Gupta, John O’Connell, Mike Greenfield (electrolytes), Andre Anderko (electrolytes), and Paul Mathias (electrolytes). We have adapted some example problems developed by John O’Connell at the NSF BioEMB Workshop, San Jose, CA, 2010. CTL would like to thank Ryoko Yamasaki for her work in typing many parts of the first edition manuscript and problem solutions. CTL also thanks family members Gail, Nicolas, and Adrienne for their patience, as many family sacrifices helped make this book possible. JRE thanks family members Guliz, Serra, and Eileen for their similar forbearance. We acknowledge Dan Friend and NIST, Boulder, for contributions to the steam tables and thermodynamic charts. Lastly, we acknowledge the influences of the many authors of previous thermodynamics texts. We hope we have done justice to this distinguished tradition, while simultaneously bringing deeper insight to a broader audience. ABOUT THE AUTHORS J. Richard Elliott is Professor of Chemical Engineering at the University of Akron in Ohio. He has taught courses ranging from freshman tools to senior process design as well as thermodynamics at every level. His research interests include: thermodynamics of polymer solutions and hydrogen bonding using molecular simulations and perturbation theory; thermodynamics of supercritical fluids and hydrocarbon processing; biorefining pretreatments; and experimental phase equilibrium measurements. He has worked with the NIST lab in Boulder and ChemStations in Houston. He holds a Ph.D. in chemical engineeringfrom Pennsylvania State University. email@example.com Carl T. Lira is Associate Professor in the Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science at Michigan State University. He teaches thermodynamics at all levels, chemical kinetics, and material and energy balances. His research accomplishments include experimental measurements and modeling for liquid metals, supercritical fluids, adsorptive separations, and liquid-vapor, solid-liquid, and liquid-liquid phase equilibria. Currently, Professor Lira specializes in the study of thermodynamic properties of bio-derived fuels and chemicals via experiments and molecular simulations, and he collaborates in the MSU Reactive Distillation Facility. He has been recognized with the Amoco Excellence in Teaching Award, and multiple presentations of the MSU Withrow Teaching Excellence Award. He holds a B.S. from Kansas State University, and an M.S. and Ph.D. from the University of Illinois, Champaign-Urbana, all in chemical engineering. firstname.lastname@example.org